## MY2011 Ford Edge Features First North American Application of 2.0L EcoBoost, Two Ti-VCT Engines

##### 10 February 2010
 The 2.0-liter EcoBoost I-4 Ti-VCT. Click to enlarge.

Ford is unveiling the refreshed 2011 Edge at the Chicago Auto Show. An all-new powertrain lineup includes North America’s first application of Ford’s global 2.0-liter EcoBoost I-4 engine (earlier post), plus the new 3.5-liter Ti-VCT (Twin Independent Variable Camshaft Timing) V-6 and 3.7-liter Ti-VCT V-6 for Edge Sport. The 3.7L Ti-VCT is similar to the one added to the 2011 Ford Mustang. (Earlier post.)

With the introduction of the 2.0-liter EcoBoost I-4, fuel economy on the new Edge will be 30% better than it was at launch in 2006. Plus, Ford’s newest EcoBoost engine will deliver on the promise of 15% fuel economy improvements versus the Edge’s current 3.5-liter V-6 engine while offering the performance feel of a six-cylinder.

 2011 Ford Edge Limited. Click to enlarge.

2.0L EcoBoost. The 2.0-liter I-4 engine with direct fuel injection and a single turbocharger will deliver fuel economy benefits at least 10% better than a comparable V-6 but with class-leading power and torque for an I-4, according to Ford.

The 2.0-liter EcoBoost I-4 engine employs many of the basic principles of Ford’s original 3.5-liter EcoBoost V-6 engines (earlier post), starting with turbocharging and direct fuel injection. Just like the first-generation EcoBoost engines, the EcoBoost I-4 will spool up quickly to maximum torque and maintain it across a broad range—estimated from 2,000 rpm to 5,500 rpm, according to preliminary Ford data.

The 2.0-liter EcoBoost I-4 engine also adds Ti-VCT (Twin Independent Variable Camshaft Timing) technology. This strategy, because of its efficiency, is incorporated into several normally aspirated (non-boosted) engine programs that debut this year, including the Ford Edge, Ford Mustang and Lincoln MKX.

The combustion system has been completely redesigned and re-engineered to take advantage of the EcoBoost system’s increased performance. The high-pressure fuel pump operates up to 2,200 psi—more than 50 times the norm seen in a conventional I-4 engine. The high-pressure pump is a cam-driven mechanical pump with a single piston and an electronic valve that controls how much fuel is routed into the fuel rail to the injectors.

As demands on the turbocharged 2.0-liter EcoBoost I-4 engine are increased, the control system responds to maintain optimal combustion, timing and injection duration. On each stroke, six individual jets on each fuel injector spray fuel directly into the combustion chamber, mixing with the incoming air. The fuel injectors are located on the side of the combustion chamber.

When the fuel is injected into the cylinder, it evaporates and cools the air that’s been inducted into the cylinder. The improved charge cooling allows the direct-injected turbocharged engine to run a higher compression ratio than was possible on port fuel-injected boosted engines. That higher compression ratio equates to improved fuel economy across the operating range of the engine.

The direct injection of fuel into the cylinder also helps provide a well-mixed air-fuel charge, increasing engine efficiency. Direct injection provides several benefits in terms of fuel burn and lower emissions. The spray pattern for the fuel was optimized after extensive computer modeling work, with the angle of how the fuel is sprayed key to the process.

The turbocharger operation paired with the direct-injection system helps to virtually eliminate turbo lag, Ford says. The turbocharger spins at up to 200,000 rpm and is designed for a life cycle of 150,000 miles or 10 years.

Turbocharger “whoosh” is mitigated by electronically controlled anti-surge valves that proactively relieve the boost in the intake, which can range up to 13 psi. Careful software calibrations manage the pressures in the intake manifold.

Overall, the 2.0-liter EcoBoost I-4 engine is about 55 pounds (25 kg) lighter than a comparable normally aspirated 3.5-liter V-6 engine. The 2.0-liter EcoBoost I-4 also will benefit from a six-speed transmission specially calibrated to take advantage of the EcoBoost. The gearbox features a new torque converter for improved driving feel, smooth shifts and improved fuel economy. Engineers also installed revised gear ratios for a balanced driving feel in all situations. The new ratios complement the revised torque converter.

The 2.0-liter EcoBoost I-4 is the first engine in the EcoBoost lineup to go truly global. Already announced is the 2.0-liter EcoBoost in the S-MAX and Galaxy, two people-moving products on sale in Europe. In addition, the same engine will join the powertrain lineup for the 2011 Ford Falcon on sale in Australia. (Earlier post.) Later in the year, the second application for North America will be announced.

Since being introduced in 2009 on four vehicles—the Ford Taurus SHO (standard) and Lincoln MKS full-size sedans and the Ford Flex and Lincoln MKT crossovers—EcoBoost engines have proven popular. The Ford Taurus SHO has a conquest rate of 45%, and since launch, in terms of volume, 48% of Lincoln MKT sales are with the EcoBoost option. Altogether, nearly 6,000 EcoBoost-equipped vehicles have been sold since introduction.

3.5L and 3.7L Ti-VCT. Both the Edge 3.5-liter V-6 and Edge Sport 3.7-liter V-6 use advanced engine valvetrain technology (Twin Independent Variable Camshaft Timing, or Ti-VCT) and clever control strategies to increase horsepower and torque.

The 3.5-liter V-6 produces 285 hp (213 kW) and 253 lb-ft (343 N·m) of torque while the 3.7-liter V-6 delivers 305 hp (227 kW) and 280 lb-ft (380 N·m) of torque—all on regular fuel. As a comparison, the the 3.5-liter V-6 with Ti-VCT technology delivers highway fuel economy that is 15% better than the Nissan Murano but produces 20 hp more.

Transmissions. All three engines are mated to a six-speed automatic transmission. The SelectShift Automatic transmission is standard on the 2011 Edge SEL and Limited series, with paddle activation of the SelectShift standard on the 2011 Edge Sport.

The 2.0-liter EcoBoost I-4 also will benefit from a six-speed transmission specially calibrated to take advantage of the EcoBoost engine.

Other powertrain system contributors to the improved fuel economy and performance of the engines include:

• Aggressive deceleration fuel shutoff; torque-based deceleration control. This control strategy shuts off the engine when the customer doesn’t command engine torque, which helps save fuel. A typical maneuver when this comes into play is during deceleration at freeway speeds when in fifth or sixth gear. The fuel flow seamlessly resumes when the vehicle reaches a low speed or when the driver accelerates again. All other powertrain, braking and electrical systems continue to function normally while the fuel delivery is stopped.

The system uses the torque delivered to the transmission to keep the engine running at a low, more efficient point whenever possible, using the momentum generated rather than more fuel to keep the vehicle moving.

• Battery management: Smart Charging. This system allows the battery to be charged or discharged at optimal opportunities instead of allowing the alternator to continuously charge the battery independent of customer use, which wastes energy. Smart Charging increases the alternator output when the vehicle brakes or decelerates, converting the vehicle’s kinetic energy into electric energy without having to use additional fuel.

Smart Charging improves the life of the battery because it keeps the battery at a more consistent level of charge, which in turn aids in reliable starting. The one-touch starting in the 2011 Ford Edge enables starts of around seven-tenths of a second with precise fuel delivery for maximum fuel economy and minimal emissions.

• Engine hardware improvements. These include new or changed piston-cooling jets; polished valvetrain buckets; improved intake manifold; Ti-VCT hardware; and improved cylinder head with increased port flow.

The piston-cooling jets spray oil on the underside of the pistons and enable faster oil warm-up and a higher compression ratio; the polished valvetrain buckets reduce friction, which in turn aids fuel economy and also improves durability (wear) of the cam and bucket tappet; the improved intake manifold and cylinder head optimizes engine breathing, contributing to overall system efficiency.

Sounds a credible offering from a major player, with this much management under their belt it will be ineresting to see if they can eventually and economically bring HEV and fuel options into the platform.

OK, so Ford finally is taking full advantage of direct injection which allows for a higher compression ratio and therefore higher thermal efficiency. Ford has also used the Atkinson engine in the Ford Escape hybrid which in the front wheel drive beats my 2007 Toyota Yaris sedan with automatic transmission. I wonder how long it will take Ford to figure out that they can combine the Atkinson engine with direct injection and either turbocharging for non-hybrids or energy recovery for hybrids. Combining the Atkinson engine with direct injection and turbocharging has the potential to further increase the effective compression ratio which will furter increase thermal efficiency, it will also increase the engine power density, but more importantly, there could be a significant increase in low end torque which is the biggest weakness of the Atkinson engine. The low end torque of the Atkinson engine has prevented the widespread use of this wonderful engine from being used in non-hybrid vehicles.
For hybrid vehicles, I suspect it would be better to recover energy from the exhaust and convert it to electricity and then release it every time you go down hill while the gas engine is turned off and the car is set to neutral.

"energy recovery for hybrids."

Nice idea, but even BMW says that they are 10 years away from anything in production. The cost/benefits have not been clearly shown and gasoline would have to be much higher priced. But in 5-10 years, who knows what the price will be?

Turbos typically have lower compression ratios so that there is enough energy in the exhaust to drive the turbo. The Atkinson cycle of course reduces the exhaust energy by expanding further than normal, so won't work well with turnos.

-DavidJ
The lower compression ratio of a turbocharged engine is to avoid knock under boost, not so much to keep exhaust energy high. Atkinson cycle with boost is known as "miller" cycle and they do work well together. It helps the engine run efficiently under part load conditions due to the high expansion ratio without sacrificing peak power.

Total price at the pump:

Cities and incorporated towns in our area are about to get a new tax power equivalent to about $0.35 USD/US gallon to cover some of the public transportation cost. This could eventually be coupled with an equivalent state/provincial fuel tax for the same purpose. Would be surprised to see a$1.00+/gal new fuel taxes applied progresively in the next 5 to 10 years. Revenues from those new taxes will buy new electrified suburb trains, more e-subways and hybrid and e-city buses.

correction:

last para should read....would not be surprised.....

It is brave of Ford to take the turbo-charger mainstream. Seems awfully ambitious if the goal also is, though not mentioned here, to get the same durability as the V-6s and naturally aspirated I-4s these engines will replace. Car companies that have built their reputation on durability (Honda, Toyota, Nissan) have tended to shy away from turbo-chargers or have reserved them for very specialized markets (ie. Subaru). Should prove interesting and I think I'll wait to see what happens before I buy one of these.

harvey, I'm also interested to see more non-fossil public transit but am concerned about the carbon tax efficiency. How much of these taxes ever really go to the desired end? Most State and Municipal public transit actions in the US are financed by local tax base or new bond issues. Bonds guarantee that the bulk of the revenue goes to buy new buses and trains.

Gasoline carbon taxes must go through a circuitous route and layers of burearcracy much like a lottery ticket dollar. the net result is maybe 10 cents on the dollar get to the desired end.

Freddy: Ford is already working on Miller cycle EcoBoost engines.

What I like here is the confidence shown in the 2.0 EcoBoost - the Edge is a vehicle which will have a 7000 lb+ gross combined weight rating.

A 4-cylinder turbo F-150 won't be too far behind.

Concern regarding the durability of Ecoboost turbocharger is valid. However, perhaps due to the higher compression ratio made possible by the charge cooling effect of direct injection, the EcoBoost turbocharger experiences lower engine exhaust gas temperature and hence can either last longer or be made cheaper, or both. Kinda like the diesel turbochargers which have been well proven in heavy-duty trucks.

It is encouraging that Ford has launched a completely new set of engine families virtually across the board. All feature all-alloy construction, DOHC, DVVT, engineering to reliably and dependably accept boost.

To engineer for boost you must ensure adequate cooling; and make sure cylinder spacing is adequate to prevent head gasket problems, along with secure head bolting. Similarly, the lower ends must be beefed up.

The new engines, a medium I-4, a new V6, and a new V8 cover the entire power requirements form mini cars to full size SUVs.

Surprisingly, Chrysler has also made similar engine investments. The Fiat small I-4s have all the technology of the Ford's medium I-4s, and also sport cylinder by cylinder VVL, and electronic throttle control. The Chrysler large WGE I-4s have all these features and will be getting cylinder by cylinder VVL this year, too. These were designed from the outset like the Ford engines to accept boost. Hyundai's version of the WGE has just won Ward's designation as a World's Top Ten engine but it doesn't have c-b-c VVL.

The Chrysler-Fiat Pentastar v6, weeks away from first sale, has all these features, all-alloy, DOHC, DVVT, etc. and will also get c-b-c VVL too. It too was designed with boosting in mind.

Its modern V8 is meant more to serve its truck orientation, but the Hemi is only 4 years old and sports VVL, MDS, and very good performance from an OHV design.

GM has older Family 0 and large I-4 Family II Ecotecs that are fine. The medium I-4 family I engines, need replacement however. The 3.0-3.6 HF V6 all alloy DOHC, DVVT has been on the Ward's Ten Best for a couple of versions already. So has the Ecotec large I-4s, who wereused to demonstrate GM's HCCI operation.

GM aborted a more modern V8, and is killing the NorthStar, all alloy DOHC, V8. It is modernizing the famous small block instead.

All in all Detroit no longer has to meekly accept that its engines are not as modern as the competitors. They have matched all, and moved into the forefront.

Joookes,

I went to the Kelly Blue Book website and found that the 2010 Ford Edge has a curb weight of 4078 lbs. I seriously doubt that future models will reach 7000+ lbs.

Actually, joookes was correct. He was very clearly referring to GCWR, which is the maximum total allowable mass of the vehicle. In other words, it's curb weight plus the the total passenger and cargo weight capacity of the vehicle. This includes all fluids and the max trailer tongue weight as well.

Ford's advances have most certainly been made possible by their renewable materials research team. ForbesWomen just did an excellent story about them. Check out the link below.

http://tiny.cc/J0RfM

Ford and many others will find that improved 4 cyls ICE can power most cars and small trucks.

Improved 2 cyls ICE could power most gensets for most cars and small trucks PHEVs, lower weight and improve economy.

The race to more and more cyls, especially 8, 10 and 12 cyls may be over.

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