The combined global land and ocean surface temperature was the warmest on record for both April and for the period from January-April, according to the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Additionally, last month’s average ocean surface temperature was the warmest on record for any April, and the global land surface temperature was the third warmest on record.
|Global temperature anomalies in April 2010 with respect to a 1971-2000 base period. Source: NOAA. Click to enlarge.|
The monthly analysis from NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center, which is based on records going back to 1880, is part of the suite of climate services that NOAA provides government, business and community leaders so they can make informed decisions.
The combined April global land and ocean average surface temperature was the warmest on record at 58.1 °F (14.5 °C), which is 1.37 °F (0.76 °C) above the 20th century average of 56.7 °F (13.7 °C).
The combined global land and ocean average surface temperature was the warmest on record for January-April at 56.0 °F (13.3 °C), which is 1.24 °F (0.69 °C) above the 20th century average.
Separately, the global ocean surface temperature was 1.03 °F (0.57 °C) above the 20th century average of 60.9 °F (16.0 °C) and the warmest on record for April. The warmth was most pronounced in the equatorial portions of the major oceans, especially the Atlantic.
The global land surface temperature was 2.32 °F (1.29 °C) above the 20th century average of 46.5 °F (8.1 °C)—the third warmest on record for April. Warmer-than-normal conditions dominated the globe, with the most prominent warmth in Canada, Alaska, the eastern United States, Australia, South Asia, northern Africa and northern Russia. Cooler-than-normal places included Mongolia, Argentina, far eastern Russia, the western contiguous United States and most of China.
El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) weakened in April, as sea-surface temperature anomalies decreased across the equatorial Pacific Ocean. The weakening contributed significantly to the warmth observed in the tropical belt and the warmth of the overall ocean temperature for April. According to NOAA’s Climate Prediction Center, El Niño is expected to continue through June.
Other highlights from the report include:
Arctic sea ice was below normal for the 11th consecutive April, covering an average of 5.7 million square miles (14.7 million square kilometers). This is 2.1% below the 1979-2000 average extent and the 15th smallest April extent since records began in 1979. It was, however, the 18th largest April Arctic sea ice extent since 2001.
Antarctic sea ice extent in April was near average, just 0.3% below the 1979-2000 average.
Based on NOAA satellite observations, snow cover extent was the fourth-lowest on record (since 1967), and below the 1967-2010 average for the Northern Hemisphere for the seventh consecutive April. Warmer-than-normal conditions over North America, Europe and parts of Russia contributed to the small snow footprint.
The North American snow cover extent for the month was the smallest on record for April. It also was the largest negative anomaly, meaning difference below the long-term average, on record for any month.
According to Australia’s Bureau of Meteorology, Victoria and Tasmania had their warmest 12-month period since national records began.
According to the Beijing Climate Center, China experienced its coolest April since 1961. Liaoning, Jilin and Shandong had their coolest April on record. Hebei, Anhui and Jiangsu had their second coolest April since records began in 1951.
China had its wettest April since 1974 and Tibet had its wettest April since records began in 1951. Meanwhile, Germany had its second-driest April on record since 1901, behind 2007, according to the German Meteorological Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst).