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Toshiba Partnering with Mitsubishi To Develop Li-ion SCiB Battery Systems for EVs

Toshiba Corporation announced that it is working with Mitsubishi Motors Corporation to bring its SCiB battery (earlier post) to electric vehicles (EVs). The SCiB is Toshiba’s rechargeable lithium-ion battery that combines high levels of safety with a long life and rapid recharging.

The use of new oxide-based materials in the current SCiB cells results in capacity loss after 3000 charge-discharge cycles of less than 10%; SCiB cells achieve more than 6000 charge-discharge cycles. More than 90% of the SCiB cell capacity can be charged in just 5 minutes using a large charging current (max. 50A).

A SCiB module now under development that houses the SCiB cells optimizes usage of individual cells and this, along with the long life cycle of the SCiB, adds to the overall durability of the battery over different cruising distances.

In bringing the SCiB to EV, Toshiba has developed a new original anode material and a new electrolyte that enhances both safety and rapid recharging.

Toshiba positions the SCiB as a new business with promising long term growth potential—and one that is already showing its versatility, as the SCiB has already been selected for an electric bicycle, an electric motorcycle, and as part of the power storage in a microgrid system.

Toshiba will produce SCiB for industrial applications, including EV and power storage, at Kashiwazaki Operations, a new facility in Niigata prefecture that is slated to start production in 2011. In the EV sector, Toshiba will move ahead by establishing an operating structure for promoting sales and marketing activities that will secure orders and allow it to respond quickly to market growth.

Mitsubishi has also earlier formed a joint venture with GS Yuasa—Lithium Energy Japan—to manufacture large-capacity and high-performance lithium-ion batteries. (Earlier post.)

Comments

Davemart

Harvey D:
'Normal evolution (improved electrodes, refined manufacturing etc etc) should get lithium batteries from 300 Wh/Kg to about 600 Wh/Kg by 2020 or shortly thereafter.'

Well, that is where we disagree AFAIK the chemistries we are using cannot be improved to anything like 600wh/kg, with 400wh/kg being difficult, so I must ask you to provide sources for your contention.

As I acknowledged, the constraints on energy density for lithium titanate seem to be even more stringent.

Wintermane:
At least you would have no problems getting the power out of lithium titanate batteries, which have an energy density approaching capacitors!

Incidentally, that is another reason why LiTi batteries are better than their raw energy density says, as they can store and discharge braking energy much more efficiently than rival chemistries.

Reel$$

"To go from 1100/1200 Wh/Kg to 2400 Wh/Kg will require a major breakthrough and many years of aggressive R & D but it is not impossible. "

Harvey you are leaving out the constant in technical evolution - regular scientific breakthroughs at an accelerating rate. With newfound understanding of quantum mechanics and cosmological explanations for "dark matter" - we can expect to see entirely new physics defining, for example, energy states of electron orbits. This will lead to discoveries about the ubiquitous flux of energy in vacuum - greatly altering man's understanding of the universe.

The major breakthrough will occur when we come to realize the need for energy storage can be replaced by miniature "on-demand" technology able to operate over unity.

Davemart

Wintermane:
I said lithium titanate has an energy density approaching capacitors.
S/be 'power density'
Apologies.

HarveyD

Dave:

Please keep your eyes/ears open for a few more months/years and you may be surprised to hear/see what will come out.

If current 150 Wh/Kg batteries are about enough for city EVs we need something between 400 and 600 Wh/Kg for practical highway EVs. The world will be there (and beyond) by 2020. That's when second and third generation EV sales will take off.

SJC

Metal air may start at 1000 Wh/kg and go up from there. It is not just lithium ion, but those may provide the rapid discharge power needed, the air batteries are for range extension.

Davemart

Harvey D:
For 600 wh/kg we need LiS or Li-air or whatever.
This is a totally different technology and you can't just read out the present rate of battery energy density increasing each year to get there.

wintermane2000

I suspect over the next decade we will see bevs form up around shorter range smaller cars and around luxury cars while we will see h2 fuel cell cars pile up around very small things like mopeds and around larger/higher energy cars and trucks.

I suspect in the middle we will seee alot of bio compatable cars with at least stop start and mild hybrid abilties.

As far as the batteries themsevles go I expect most evsa in 2015 will still be using batteries very simular to current ones just somewhat cheaper. By 2020 I suspect we will be seeing a mix of still cheaper variants of the same batteries and some more spendy higher cap batteries showing up in 2nd and third gen evs. But not all that much more capacity then now.. 150-200 wh/kg.

I think the higher cap batteries will be limited to luxury models and very high end options packages.

Davemart

'By 2020 I suspect we will be seeing a mix of still cheaper variants of the same batteries and some more spendy higher cap batteries showing up in 2nd and third gen evs. But not all that much more capacity then now.. 150-200 wh/kg.'

!!!What possible justification have you got for that argument?
We already know perfectly well how to build batteries up to and beyond that range.
Leaving aside the Panasonic, the AESC/Nissan battery is well up to that spec:
'The Nikkei reports that Nissan Motor Co. has nearly completed development of a lithium-ion battery using a lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide cathode (NMC). The new system, which will reportedly offer almost double the capacity of Nissan/AESC’s current manganese spinel cell, is supposedly slated for deployment in electric vehicles in 2015. '

http://www.greencarcongress.com/2009/11/nissan-nmc-20091129.html#more

It's all very well to 'expect' something, but you have given no rational grounds at all to show why anyone else should share your expectation! :-)

Why are you ignoring technologies which are nearly ready, or is you read the specs of the Kokam batteries using a similar chemistry, already available?

wintermane2000

Because I dont expect the road ahead to be without some realy annoying potholes.

Davemart

wintermane,
My mate EVsuperhero will be sadly disappointed then to learn he is driving an imaginary car!
He bought 35kwh of Kokam batteries for $18k around a year ago, and the energy density is way better than you think we won't get to in 2015!

wintermane2000


1000 charge cycles.... As I said in that topic and again here thats not good.

SJC

I don't think that it makes much sense to rank and rave about battery opinions. Let's see how the EV works in the market place, if no one buys them then it is a moot point.

mds

From Davemart’s link: http://e2af.com/interview/091009.shtml
Mr. Keizoh Honda points out that energy density (Wh/kg) and power density (W/kg) are only “one aspect of the discussion”. There is a tendency to discuss high energy density as the only critical factor. In fact, less than 100 Wh/kg is plenty sufficient for short range EVs and, MORE IMPORTANTLY, E-REVs. This is true if you have sufficient depth of charge performance and CYCLE LIFE! …and in colder areas low temperature performance. 78% of USA drivers travel less than 40 miles a day. That means these drivers can reduce their fuel oil use by over 90%, even if they are driving an SUV E-REV. …as long as it can get 40-50 miles all-electric and 40-50 mpg in charge sustaining or series-hybrid mode. This represents a HUGE reduction in fuel oil use! (90% x 78% x 60% for light trucks and cars = 42% reduction) Short range EVs will eliminate fuel oil use by light trucks and cars in places like Israel, Hawaii, and the Caribbean where short range driving is the only requirement. Toshiba’s SCiB battery is going to meet this need for short range EVs and E-REVs AND they will have competition from others!
Mr. Honda claims Toshiba will be shipping a 20 Ah 100 Wh/kg battery this fall. Hopefully they will indicate the Cycle-Life performance for that particular battery. At this point high Cycle-Life, Lower COST, and, in cold climates, Low Temperature performance are more important than energy density. Short range EVs and E-REVs are here now. A discussion of high energy density batteries for long range EVs, or when this will happen, is like arguing over how many angles can dance on the head of a pin. It will happen but it’s a little early to predict how and when, imho. Maybe we’ll end up using H2 or AE fuels for longer range travel. Who really knows at this point?

mds

SUMMARY of Li Ion cycle data from internet sources:
A123 – FePO4 – 87% good after 3,700 cycles at ?% DOD - ?Wh/kg (M1 battery is 108 Wh/kg) (in production)
Altairnano – TiO2 – 85% good after 15,000 cycles at ?% DOD – 90 Wh/kg (reproducible results? DOD level) (Low production.)
EnerDel/Ener1 – TiO2 – 95% good after 1,000 cycles at ?% DOD - ? Wh/kg (working on production? Not clear.)
EnerDel/Ener1 – NMC/HC (NiMnC/HC?) – ? at ?% DOD - ? Wh/kg (in production? Not clear.)
Lithium Technology Corp – FePO2 - 80% good after 3,000 cycles at ?% DOD – ? Wh/kg (in production)
Advanced Battery Technology – Lithium Polymer (chemistry?) - ?% good after 4,000 cycles at ?% DOD – ? Wh/kg
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd – MnO2 - ?% good after 3,500 cycles at ?% DOD – 160 Wh/kg (going into production AND plans to increase production)
Toshiba (SCiB battery) – TiO2 – 90% good after 3,000 cycles at ?% DOD - 50 to 67 Wh/kg (good for 6,000 cycles) (going to full production) April 2009
Toshiba (SCiB battery) – TiO2 – 80% good after 6,000 cycles at ?% DOD - 50 to 67 Wh/kg (up to 10,000 cycles) (150,000/month production)
LiFeBATT – FePO4 - ?% good after 1,500 cycles at ?% DOD - ? Wh/kg (3 year or 1,500 cycle warranty) (in production)
E-One Moli Energy Ltd - Mn2O4 – 80% good after 1,200 cycles at ?% DOD - ? Wh/kg (Exclusive contract with Milwaukee tools.)
(Older version has been in production for many years)
Thunder Sky – chemistry? - 2,000 cycles at 80% DOD 3,000 cycles at 70% DOD 62.5 to 75 Wh/kg (in production)
Valence Technology Inc. - chemistry? - 90% good after 1,800 cycles at 100% DOD? – 77 to 85 Wh/kg
Electrovaya – FePO2 – ?cycles at ?% DOD – 110-130 Wh/kg
Electrovaya – MnO2 – ?cycles at ?% DOD – 170-210 Wh/kg
Electro Energy - chemistry? – 500 cycles at full? DOD – 185 Wh/kg (aiming for 400-500 Wh/kg) (500 is not enough cycles for E-REVs)
Sanyo - chemistry? – ?cycles at ?% DOD – 90 Wh/kg
New Research from Japan – FePO4 - 1,100 cycles at Full 100% DOD – 165 Ah/kg (at 3 Volts? 495 Wh/kg?? mds)
SK Energy - Mn2O4 – 70% good after 5,000 “full” cycles “at 5C” at ?% DOD - ? Wh/kg (going to full production) June 2009
SK Energy - Mn2O4 (P135 cells) – 70% good after 9,000 cycles; 85% after 5,000 cycles at ?% DOD - 138 Wh/kg (in production)
SK Energy - Mn2O4 (P200 cells) – 95% good after 3,000 cycles at ?% DOD - 138 Wh/kg (in production)
LTC - FePO4 - ?% good after 3,000 cycles at 80% DOD - 90 Wh/kg
Boston Power - CoMn – 2,000 cycles at 90% DOD, 1,000 cycles at 100% DOD – 180Wh/kg (small batteries for laptops in production)
9 companies with Li Ion batteries that can support 3,000 cycles or more.

This may not be fully up to date or accurate, but it paints a picture. Fully capable Li batteries from several sources will be available for short range EVs and E-REVs. E-REVs offer all of the advantages of EVs with none of the range anxiety. The cost will drop will increased volume of production. The market will explode, as will the competitive pressure and R&D spent to achieve long range EVs.

wintermane2000

mds lifecycle in the lab is one thing in a car is anouther. That was something gm learned rather fast.

Also while we talk about 1000 2000 3000 cycles... we forget to note how many fall well below that metric... It does no good for a battery to get 3000 cycles if 15% of them only manage 900. The 15% will dominate the picture.

And with the economy going splat again soon exactly how many of these companies are gona be here 5 years from now?

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