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Grand opening of Neste Oil renewable diesel plant in Singapore; ISCC certification

Neste Oil celebrated the grand opening of its ISCC-certified renewable diesel plant in Singapore. The start-up of the Singapore plant, which produces NExBTL renewable diesel, took place in November 2010; production at the world’s largest renewable diesel plant has run smoothly since.

The plant has a capacity of 800,000 metric tons per annum, and cost around €550 million to build. It uses a variety of renewable feedstocks to produce NExBTL, including palm oil and side stream products of palm oil production from Indonesia and Malaysia, as well as waste animal fat from Australia and New Zealand.

Neste Oil has a similar-sized facility under construction in Rotterdam, which is due to be commissioned in mid-2011. The company already operates two renewable diesel plants that came on stream at Porvoo in Finland in 2007 and 2009 with a combined capacity of 380,000 metric tons per annum. After the start-up of Rotterdam plant, the production capacity of Neste Oil’s renewable diesel plants totals approximately 2 million metric tons annually. The main markets for NExBTL diesel are Europe and North America.

Singapore refinery to receive ISCC certification. At the end of January 2011, Neste Oil’s Singapore refinery was ISCC (International Sustainability & Carbon Certification) certified. More specifically, the certificate confirms that NExBTL renewable diesel produced at the Singapore refinery from certified raw materials, such as from ISCC certified palm oil, meets the strict sustainability criteria based on the EU's renewable energy directive (RED) and is suitable for meeting bio-content mandates on the German market. The ISCC system, specific to the German market, is approved by the German Federal Office of Agriculture and Food (BLE). Neste Oil’s Porvoo refinery in Finland has already been ISCC certified in November 2010.


Henry Gibson

Natural forests are being destroyed by the square mile for these oil plantations. Better would be to recycle CO2 with water and nuclear electricity in the Cerametec electro-solid-electrolyte process. France can start this immediately since they are already using some electricity for hydrogen production. Any fuel can be made from the gasses produced in this process. All of the energy in the fuel comes from the electricity, but it may be a more efficient process than hydrogen production and produces more convenient fuels. There are no barriers to the collection and distribution of liquid CO2 in pipes or tankers and many processes that use coal or natural gas can be modified to collect relatively pure CO2. CO2 pipelines can be used as kind of a chemical heat pipe.

The oxyfuel process as proposed by LINDE can be used with the more than 50 percent efficient very large low speed engine-generators made by MAN and could also be made to Wartsilla engine designs, and a geothermal organic rankine cycle with the waste heat can increase the efficiency to better than some fuel cells at lower capital and operating costs. The oxyfuel process mixes pure oxygen with recycled CO2 and adds fuel in proportions which result in sufficiently low temperature for the engine or turbine to operate and produce low NOX as well. The CO2 is separated from the water in the exhaust by simple condensation and some of the CO2 is recirculated and some of the CO2 is stored. I don't know what the cost to liquify CO2 is but the LINDE ionic liquid compressor technology is highly suited. Pressure swing absorbtion combined with other processes, if necessary, could be a way to get pure oxygen cheaply. As others have now proposed the making of building materials from CO2 and the calcium and magnesium in the ocean, I am now free to mention it. Coal fired power plants along the California or Baltic or Atlantic coasts could also produce massive amounts of high quality magnesium wallboard and artificial limestone or dolomite or just big piles of dolomite. Removing the calcium and magnesium from the water also makes desalinization easier.

Singapore also should install several CANDU power plants, and could use removed used light water fuel from other China reactors with only the fission products removed and diluted with thorium and packaged for use in CANDU reactors. If China and India were to build a lot of heavy water reactors they could buy all of the used US fuel for nothing and solve the US problem and eliminate the raw cost of fuel. Once the repackaging plant is operational the cost of fuel almost vanishes even though the cost of fuel is not a large part of the cost of nuclear electricity. AECL should make and sell the smallest possible heavy water nuclear reactor that is possible and is sufficiently neutron efficient for the use of thorium fuel.

Reduced radiation uranium, mostly called depleted uranium, or enriched U238 uranium can also be used up in CANDU fuel mixtures with used light water fuels as is now being tested in China. Pure used light water fuel is too powerful for the regular CANDU reactor. Perhaps a very small deuterium moderated reactor will be made to use the light water fuel rod bundles directly without any modification or processing. With the advances in uranium centrifuges, power reactors should be modified for smaller size and more efficient use of fuel and neutron efficient. Neutrons of sufficient quantity to make a pound of uranium from thorium is worth the cost of three million pounds of coal.

The cost of the fuel in the nuclear electric generating process is a small fraction of the cost of the delivered electricity. This is also true of coal. There is no need for large highly efficient turbines in nuclear power plants several smaller ones would be more reliable and cheaper to build.

Singapore could be first to make and sell liquid fuels in large quantities made from nuclear power at lower costs than crude oil. At first and very efficiently, nuclear heat alone could be used for all of the heat needed to make steam to change Coal into liquid fuels with reduced carbon release. This is also true of bioethanol and other biofuels. Reactors designed mainly for heat can be very much cheaper to build and operate. Coal and natural gas other wise used for generating electricity can be used to make liquid fuels with no increase in carbon releases. Singapore should build nuclear reactors to produce only heat for heating and cooling. The can be buried a hundred feed deep and used as artificial geothermal energy.


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