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AC Propulsion sends eBox EV to Denmark for V2G research focused on buffering intermittent renewable energy

AC Propulsion has delivered an AC Propulsion-powered eBox to the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), where it will be used to evaluate Vehicle to Grid (V2G) operation as part of a research program. The research aims to advance integration of electric vehicles (EVs) with Denmark’s electric power grid, which has extensive wind power generation capacity.

Integration between the power grid and electric vehicles will become essential and beneficial as EV numbers increase over the next decade. The University of Delaware (UD) has developed communication and control systems for V2G technology and has had good results on the US grid. In Denmark, UD will now shift its focus to another important application of V2G research, which is buffering intermittent renewable energy resources. Working to integrate the power grid and EVs, as part of the Smart Grid initiative, makes economic sense because it benefits EV users and provides power back to the grid. We are happy to be working with DTU and look forward to furthering V2G implementation in Europe.

—Tom Gage, AC Propulsion CEO

DTU had to clear regulatory hurdles to import the eBox, which is not homologated in Europe, but the university needed an eBox specifically because it is equipped with AC Propulsion’s integrated charger, which allows grid-connected charging and discharging at up to 18 kW. UD and DTU are working with Nuvve, who is licensed in Europe to deploy UD control technology for aggregating electric vehicles to provide large blocks of power.

This feature is essential for DTU’s investigation of buffering the large, but intermittent, power generated by Denmark’s offshore wind farms. With V2G, for example, a fleet of EVs plugged in to the grid could balance the variable ups and downs of power generated from the wind.

AC Propulsion is a pioneer in the development of V2G systems and has supplied eBox vehicles to several V2G test programs. A fleet of five eBoxes has been in revenue-generating service at the University of Delaware by providing grid regulation for more than two years.

The researchers in Denmark will work with the University of Delaware and Nuvve to investigate V2G compatibility with the European grid and determine the necessary requirements for using V2G technology with Denmark’s increasing reliance on wind energy. The eBox delivered to DTU was manufactured by AutoPort, Inc., of New Castle, Delaware, a tier 2 upfitter that does electric car conversions based on the AC Propulsion drive train and vehicle design.

The eBox is an electric conversion designed and developed by AC Propulsion, based on the 2006 Scion xB. The Scion’s internal combustion components are removed and replaced with the AC Propulsion tzero electric drive system and lithium-ion batteries. The eBox was the model for BMW’s MINI E EV which uses the same AC Propulsion drive system and battery as the eBox.



V2G will be completely unnecessary with the advent of distributed energy. Each residence will produce their own electricity obviating the need for any grid whatsoever. While this will be disruptive for old school energy purveyors - it brings simplicity and economy to millions of homes. Many of whom suffer "fuel poverty."

What will be useful is V2Home. The vehicle storage system could function as a home energy backup UPS and or load leveler. Distributed energy plans call for micro-grids to support community and neighborhood needs. Variability from intermittent wind & solar will be a minor issue when they are no longer needed for base load.


I could see a day when the grid is backup. Most energy is produced in a distributed way and the grid is there to supply power when needed. That could mean building fewer coal fired power plants with fewer emissions.

This requires a genuine energy policy that covers all relevant issues, not just drilling, mining and burning. We still have a 19th century mentality that says if it is profitable, then we do it. That says we need think no further, we need energy to grow and this is the only way to do that. Time to get smarter.


Even with distributed generation the V2G is needed, it can provide battery back up for your home and many GRUID tied solar systems don't have any batteries or standby capability. It also can regulate the GRID for varying loads and intermittent wind.

There will always be a big need for power balancing and regulation. ACPropulsion is the leader and will make this all possible.

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