Long-term exposure to air pollution can lead to physical changes in the brain, as well as learning and memory problems and even depression, new research in mice suggests.
While other studies have shown the damaging effects of polluted air on the heart and lungs, this is one of the first long-term studies to show the negative impact on the brain, said Laura Fonken, lead author of the study and a doctoral student in neuroscience at Ohio State University. The study appears online this week in the journal Molecular Psychiatry.
For this study, Fonken and colleagues in Ohio State’s Department of Neuroscience collaborated with researchers in the university’s Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute.
In previous studies in mice, the Davis research group—including Qinghua Sun, associate professor of environmental health sciences, and Sanjay Rajagopalan, professor of cardiovascular medicine—found that fine air particulate matter causes widespread inflammation in the body, and can be linked to high blood pressure, diabetes and obesity. This new study aimed to extend their research on air pollution to the brain.
The more we learn about the health effects of prolonged exposure to air pollution, the more reasons there are to be concerned. This study adds more evidence of pollution’s negative effects on health.—Randy Nelson, co-author of the study and professor of neuroscience and psychology at Ohio State
In the new study, mice were exposed to either filtered air or polluted air for six hours a day, five days a week for 10 months&MDASH;nearly half the lifespan of the mice. The polluted air contained fine particulate matter (PM2.5, which can reach deep areas of the lungs and other organs of the body.
|“This could have important and troubling implications for people who live and work in polluted urban areas around the world.”|
The concentration of particulate matter that the mice were exposed to was equivalent to what people may be exposed to in some polluted urban areas, according to the researchers.
After 10 months of exposure to the polluted or filtered air, the researchers performed a variety of behavioral tests on the animals.
In a learning and memory test, mice were placed in the middle of a brightly lit arena and given two minutes to find an escape hole leading to a dark box where they feel more comfortable. They were given five days of training to locate the escape hole, but the mice who breathed the polluted air took longer to learn where the escape hole was located. The mice exposed to polluted air also were less likely to remember where the escape hole was when tested later.
In another experiment, mice exposed to the polluted air showed more depressive-like behaviors than did the mice that breathed the filtered air. The polluted-air mice showed signs of higher levels of anxiety-like behaviors in one test, but not in another.
But how does air pollution lead to these changes in learning, memory and mood? The researchers did tests on the hippocampal area of the mice brains to find the answers. The hippocampus is associated with learning, memory and depression.
Results showed clear physical differences in the hippocampi of the mice who were exposed to polluted air compared to those who weren’t. The researchers looked specifically at dendrites (branches that grow off of nerve cells). The dendrites have small projections growing off them called spines, which transmit signals from one neuron to another.
Mice exposed to polluted air had fewer spines in parts of the hippocampus, shorter dendrites and overall reduced cell complexity.
“Previous research has shown that these types of changes are linked to decreased learning and memory abilities,” said Nelson.
In other studies, several of the co-authors of this study from the Davis research center found that chronic exposure to polluted air leads to widespread inflammation in the body, which is linked to a variety of health problems in humans, including depression. This new study found evidence that this low-grade inflammation is evident in the hippocampus.
In mice that breathed the polluted air, chemical messengers that cause inflammation—called pro-inflammatory cytokines—were more active in the hippocampus than they were in mice who breathed the filtered air.
The hippocampus is particularly sensitive to damage caused by inflammation. We suspect that the systemic inflammation caused by breathing polluted air is being communicated to the central nervous system.—Laura Fonken
The research was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health.
L K Fonken, X Xu, Z M Weil, G Chen, Q Sun, S Rajagopalan and R J Nelson (2011) Air pollution impairs cognition, provokes depressive-like behaviors and alters hippocampal cytokine expression and morphology. Molecular Psychiatry doi: 10.1038/mp.2011.76