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Toyota wraps up 3-year Strasbourg Prius PHV demo project; average 46% reduction in fuel consumption compared to gasoline ICE vehicles

Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) has completed its three-year plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV) demonstration project jointly carried out with Électricité de France (EDF) and the City and the Urban Community of Strasbourg in France.

The partners revealed the final conclusions collected from this large-scale demonstration, in which approximately 70 units of the Prius PHV were provided to Strasbourg. Data was accumulated by utilizing the 145 dedicated charging stations installed in the city by EDF to identify vehicles and exchange information. The vehicles travelled more than a total of 4 million kilometers (2.485 million miles) during the project. Among the findings were:

  • The plug-ins achieved an average 46% reduction in fuel consumption compared to conventional gasoline vehicle of similar size with an average charging frequency of 1.1 times a day.

  • A direct correlation between the recharging frequency and fuel consumption: higher charging frequency leads to lower fuel consumption.

    For example, Toyota said, take a user that recharges 1.6 times a day. While driving 40% in hybrid mode and 60% in electric mode, the user obtains levels of approximately 70% of reduction in fuel consumption compared to a conventional gasoline vehicle of similar size. This represents an estimated saving of €1,400 (US$1,800) on an annual basis, assuming that the car drives around 20,000 km (12,400 miles) a year.

  • 60% of the recharges are carried out at work and 37% at home. Public charging points are welcomed by users for supplementary charging. Scheduled charging leads to CO2 emissions reductions of 10% to 15%.

  • Average cost of recharge is around €0.30 (US$0.40) (all costs included).

  • Up to 61% of CO2 emissions can be reduced compared to conventional gasoline cars of similar size.

Thanks to the participation from the citizens of Strasbourg, Toyota was able to acquire valuable data for the further promotion of PHV technologies. Based on the results that were obtained from this demonstration project, we intend to offer technologies more accessible for widespread adoption.

—Michel Gardel, vice-president of communications and external and environmental affairs at Toyota Motor Europe NV/SA

Toyota launched the Prius Plug-in in Japan at the beginning of 2012, followed by introductions in North America and Europe. To date, around 31,100 plug-ins have been sold, equivalent to 1.5 times the number of Prius sold in a full year when launched in 2000. For Europe, the year-to-date figure amounts to 4,417 units, with sales starting only end of summer 2012.

EDF, with the support of its subsidiary Electricité de Strasbourg (ES group), incorporated innovative features into the charging infrastructure put in place for the project. One of these features automatically shifts vehicle charging time to off-peak period, benefiting from reduced power costs. In addition, an internet based monitoring service enabled users to verify that the average cost of a recharge did not exceed €0.30.

To make the system even more customer friendly, EDF and its subsidiary, Sodetrel, developed a smartphone application to geolocate charging points and check their availability.

The Urban Community of Strasbourg is now moving forward to engage in the cross border program CROME (Cross Border Mobility for Electric Vehicle). New outlets meeting European standards for electric vehicles have been installed, some allowing full charge of an electric vehicle within two hours. Both users of electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles will benefit from these new charging points.

Comments

Engineer-Poet
China is busy cloning three loop Westinghouse three loop reactors designed in the 60s.

China shelved plans for a lot of those after Fukushima.  It's going with the Gen III+ designs like AP1000.

kelly

@kp, AVs 44MW link totals only 7 utility solar projects. Millions of private/rooftop solar grid/off-grid solar projects are the real energy gains.

Rooftop solar(private residential) has grid parity many places. Walmart is pledged to owning it's own power, mainly renewable on site solar power - with major industry following suit.

http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-03-24/nrg-skirts-utilities-taking-solar-panels-to-u-s-rooftop.html

Existing utilities can freeze growth, providing night shift electricity, until new electric storage costs are less than remaining utility maintenance.

On this article's comments, like a dozen others, you have stated:

"Nuke plants are economically producing 20% of our power" (With over 200% average nuclear cost overruns alone, it is impossible for nuclear to be economical, rather less most economical.) AND

"wind and solar are poor engineering" BUT NOW

"..we should keep building wind turbines and solar as fast as we can."

Stop 'Mitting' on us.

Each of the 100,000 hairs on that lying election loser's head represents $1,000 dollars - just in his $100 million IRA(onshore), based on the stolen pensions of workers, widows, and orphans.

kelly

@Bernard, "Take care of an electric car, and the battery will be worthless within a dozen years, forcing you to purchase a new car."

Have you checked the 'Blue Book' on dozen-year-old 1000 moving part ICE autos? An EV could drive "like new" with just a 1/3rd the cost new battery, then reduced another half by old battery rebate(grid storage).

Give me a dozen year old Leaf or Tesla. I'll do fine.

ICE maintenance steals the money through $100/hr labor, 3,000 mile oil changes, fluid changes, filter changes, transmission 'adjustments' - and voiding the warranty if your records don't play ball.

Oh, I forgot future gas costs higher than MSRP and EV regeneration nearly eliminates brake wear, ..

Bernard

"An EV could drive 'like new' with just a 1/3rd the cost new battery"
"EV regeneration nearly eliminates brake wear"

Make any unreasonable assumptions?

1st gen Priuses and Insights are getting scrapped because battery replacements are too expensive. You're assuming that this situation will improve going forward, but it probably won't.

Hybrid cars do not require any less brake maintenance than comparable non-hybrids. I'm sure we can all find very specific counter-examples but, overall, techs tell me that Priuses are due for new pads/rotors at around the same mileage as Corollas. The Prius parts are more expensive. Again, you assume that this will change going forward, but based on what?

kelly

@Bernard, "Deutsche Bank revises li-ion battery cost forecasts downward to $250/kWh by 2020"

http://green.autoblog.com/2011/01/06/deutsche-bank-li-ion-battery-cost-forecast-per-kwh/

Note: "..batteries have fallen from $2,000 to $250 in 15 years."[1/8] Would 1/4th cost be a more reasonable assumption?

Even a "used up" EV drive battery can still take 80% charge(or 4 times the charge of a same size new lead-acid battery).

Since regeneration does the majority of braking, EV brake pads last longer with less use.

kelly

@B, or the Fed battery hub is budgeted to 5X more powerful, 1/5th cost batteries WITHIN 5 YEARS.

Bernard

Kelly,

New batteries may be cheaper to produce. That doesn't mean that old batteries for discontinued cars will be cheaper at the retail level. Manufacturers have no incentive to re-engineer cars that were produced 10 years prior (so they can use newer battery tech).

Your assumption about brake wear in cars that use regeneration has not been proven in real life. Maybe real life is correct. Just saying. Besides, brake jobs happen every 4-5 years if you use quality components. That's only a hundred or two a year in cost, which doesn't move payback around by a noticeable amount.

kelly

@Bernard, voltage is voltage, unless perhaps a significant battery chemistry change alters charging characteristics - which could be handled outside the vehicle.

When future cells are much cheaper and better, one will have a much cheaper or a much longer range replacement option inside the volume of today's battery cases.

It's intuitive that less brake pad contact equals less use and longer life, but a brief search didn't confirm/deny.

Bernard

Kelly,

Electric cars are comparatively heavier due to the weight of the battery pack(s). They also often use lighter-weight braking components which may not wear as well (the Prius uses aluminium brake components). Add to that the fact that regenerative braking only works within the charging capacity of the pack (full charge = no regenerative braking) and within the maximum allowable charging rate (which is typically lower than the discharging rate). For stability reasons, the non-driving axle also needs to brake.

All of these factors contribute to the fact that brake wear on electric and hybrid cars is not necessarily reduced.

Changes in battery chemistry will require new software at a minimum, and most likely new hardware (chargers, inverters, etc). I doubt that any manufacturer would bother with this when their main focus is to sell you a new car.
Aftermarket and home-brew packs have serious safety concerns. You may not be able to insure a car that has a non-OEM pack.

Engineer-Poet

I have been driving a car with regenerative braking for a few days now, and after a stop I often get feedback of 100% of braking done with regeneration.  I have even gotten that on several trip legs.  I am assuming that the brake discs are getting almost zero wear, and I am going to have to start watching them for rust and do some heavy braking if I begin to see it.

kelly

Oops, http://cars.csmonitor.com/q/3976/9978/Is-the-2013-Nissan-LEAF-S-a-very-heavy-car

A
The 2013 Nissan LEAF S has a curb weight of 3,291 lbs in base trim, which is 11.8% lighter than the average for all Cars.

Kit P

“I often get feedback of 100% of braking done with regeneration ”

I have been waiting for E-P's first exaggeration about his new over priced car. This is not the first claim of many that will violate the laws of thermodynamics.

For all of those who do not know, PHEV are powered with an ICE. Still have to change the oil.

Kit P

“Nissan LEAF S has a curb weight of 3,291 lbs”

Curb weight of a Corolla = 2734, Prious C = 3274, 89 Ranger = 2802

Batteries are heavy, batteries are expensive, batteries are bad for the environment, batteries are inherently inefficient.

Bernard

Kelly,

The Leaf is smaller than the average car in the US. If you choose to compare like with like, it's 550 lbs (20%) heavier than a same-size Nissan Versa. That's a huge amount for a sub-compact, and it means that the Leaf's brakes are working very hard.

To give you an idea of how significant this is, you should know that the gross weight (fully laden) for the Versa is 3,389 lbs. That means that a Leaf with a 103 lbs driver is heavier than the legal limit for the same-platform Versa! That will put some stress on the brakes.

Kit P

@E-P

“China shelved plans for a lot of those after Fukushima.  It's going with the Gen III+ designs like AP1000. ”

http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Country-Profiles/Countries-A-F/China--Nuclear-Power/

“pause in approvals for new plants ”

“A State Council Research Office report in January 2011 emphasised that these should have priority over alternative designs such as CPR-1000, and this position strengthened following the Fukushima accident. ”

The proof will have to wait to see what plants they actually start construction of in 2013 & 2014 and later.

Roger Pham

@Bernard,

Take a look at the Prius Gen III, without any belted accessories, in fact, no belt at all! This means no frequently-replaced items such as the alternator, water pump, power steering pump, A/C compressor. The car does not even have a starter that require frequent replacement! The A/C compressor is electric-motor driven and is hermetically sealed against leakage, unlike a typical A/C compressor of an ICEV with Freon leakage via the drive shaft. There is no transmission in the Prius, nor the C-Max, so no high cost of transmission service, repair, or replacement that will cost several thousands dollars. The hybrid battery will last for the life of the car. I hardly ever use the friction brake in my Prius because electric recuperation does most of it. All these above are items that will need replacement around 100,000 miles. I know that because I have had to replace or repair these items in the last many decades of motoring. Or you can trade in your old car every 5 years or so, and pay a lot more to get a new car. With an EV, you can keep your car a lot longer. BEV's may need battery replacement, but battery will get cheaper, and the cost of the new Battery is more than recuperated from the saving in fuel cost. Just do the calculations as I've done and posted here in GCC.

Now, look at the Prius PHV or C-max Energi or GM Volt that is driven >60% of the time on electric motor alone. What will that do to the ICE power plant? That will greatly prolong the lifespan of the ICE.

Roger Pham

@Bernard,

Take a look at the Prius Gen III, without any belted accessories, in fact, no belt at all! This means no frequently-replaced items such as the alternator, water pump, power steering pump, A/C compressor. The car does not even have a starter that require frequent replacement! The A/C compressor is electric-motor driven and is hermetically sealed against leakage, unlike a typical A/C compressor of an ICEV with Freon leakage via the drive shaft. There is no transmission in the Prius, nor the C-Max, so no high cost of transmission service, repair, or replacement that will cost several thousands dollars. The hybrid battery will last for the life of the car. I hardly ever use the friction brake in my Prius because electric recuperation does most of it. All these above are items that will need replacement around 100,000 miles. I know that because I have had to replace or repair these items in the last many decades of motoring. Or you can trade in your old car every 5 years or so, and pay a lot more to get a new car. With an EV, you can keep your car a lot longer. BEV's may need battery replacement, but battery will get cheaper, and the cost of the new Battery is more than recuperated from the saving in fuel cost. Just do the calculations as I've done and posted here in GCC.

Now, look at the Prius PHV or C-max Energi or Volt that is driven >60% of the time on electric motor alone. What will that do to the ICE power plant? That will greatly prolong the lifespan of the ICE

Roger Pham

@Bernard,

Take a look at the Prius Gen III, without any belted accessories, in fact, no belt at all! This means no frequently-replaced items such as the alternator, water pump, power steering pump, A/C compressor. The car does not even have a starter that require frequent replacement! The A/C compressor is electric-motor driven and is hermetically sealed against leakage, unlike a typical A/C compressor of an ICEV with coolant leakage via the drive shaft. There is no transmission in the Prius, nor the C-Max, so no high cost of transmission service, repair, or replacement that will cost several thousands dollars. The hybrid battery will last for the life of the car. I hardly ever use the friction brake in my Prius because electric recuperation does most of it. All these above are items that will need replacement around 100,000 miles. I know that because I have had to replace or repair these items in the last many decades of motoring. Or you can trade in your old car every 5 years or so, and pay a lot more to get a new car. With an EV, you can keep your car a lot longer. BEV's may need battery replacement, but battery will get cheaper, and the cost of the new Battery is more than recuperated from the saving in fuel cost. Just do the calculations as I've done and posted here in GCC.

Now, look at the Prius PHV or C-max Energi or Volt that is driven >60% of the time on electric motor alone. What will that do to the ICE power plant? That will greatly prolong the lifespan of the ICE

Roger Pham

@Bernard,

Take a look at the Prius, without any belted accessories, in fact, no belt at all! This means no frequently-replaced items such as the alternator, water pump, power steering pump, A/C compressor. The car does not even have a starter that require frequent replacement! The A/C compressor is electric-motor driven and is hermetically sealed against leakage, unlike a typical A/C compressor of an ICEV with coolant leakage via the drive shaft. There is no transmission in the Prius, nor the C-Max, so no high cost of transmission service, repair, or replacement that will cost several thousands dollars. The hybrid battery will last for the life of the car. I hardly ever use the friction brake in my Prius because electric recuperation does most of it. All these above are items that will need replacement around 100,000 miles. I know that because I have had to replace or repair these items in the last many decades of motoring. Or you can trade in your old car every 5 years or so, and pay a lot more to get a new car. With an EV, you can keep your car a lot longer. BEV's may need battery replacement, but battery will get cheaper, and the cost of the new Battery is more than recuperated from the saving in fuel cost. Just do the calculations as I've done and posted here in GCC.

Now, look at the Prius PHV or C-max Energi or Volt that is driven >60% of the time on electric motor alone. What will that do to the ICE power plant? That will greatly prolong the lifespan of the ICE

Roger Pham

Sorry for the above attempts at overcoming WP, not knowing that the posting was posted on the next page!

@Bernard,
The Leaf's brakes will hardly do any work at all! The electric motor's regen will do nearly all the braking! Drive an EV before you make any further judgment!

@Kit P,
>>>"Batteries are heavy, batteries are expensive, batteries are bad for the environment, batteries are inherently inefficient."

Batteries enable personal transportation using nuclear energy or RE. Batteries allows HEV's to significantly gain efficiency over ICEV's. Batteries in BEV's can soak up excess RE at one time and release to the grid at another time. Batteries are getting lighter, more powerful and cheaper.

Solar PV's can complement nuclear baseload quite well in the summer. In the spring and fall, excess RE or nuclear energy can be used to produce H2 for use in the winter for home FC-CHP, for transportation year round, or for making synthetic hydrocarbon fuels from waste biomass.

If you would just look at the bigger picture and not be fixated on the present-day practices of power generation, then you will understand how great RE is. That's innovation is all about. RE will free humankind from the shackle of fossil fuel dependency.

HarveyD

RP's claim may have been recently demonstrated by R & D in a Mid-West University with new breakthrough in 'scalable' very quick charge batteries with 10X the energy storage capacity of current lithium, same size batteries.

The same source claimed, that small units for cell phones and other small electronic units, could be available by end of 2013. Larger size EV units will take longer to mass produce and test. Those new 10X batteries will make practical extended range BEVs a reality.

Batteries evolution is NOT dead but progressing at higher rate. Many new technologies will be used in the next 3 to 5 years to produce batteries with 10X performance.

HarveyD

The 10X battery breakthrough mentioned above was from prof. William P King at University of Illinois, USA and published 16 April 2013 in Nature Communications. A Google search gives more info.

pat

Some posts are repeated. Others are removed, after posted and confirmed with URL reload.

What's wrong?

HarveyD

This breakthrough was also reported by BBC News Technology, 17 April 2013.

Bernard

"frequently-replaced items such as the alternator, water pump, power steering pump, A/C compressor. (...) starter that require frequent replacement! (...) transmission service, repair, or replacement that will cost several thousands dollars."

Roger,

With all due respect, you are driving a lemon. I wouldn't have held on to that car as long as you.

You should know that your experience is not typical of modern cars. Out of your entire list, my 12 year old car has only had a water pump replacement, and that wasn't expensive. By the way, electric cars also have water pumps that are used to heat and cool the batteries; not to mention AC and power steering (electric, as in all modern cars).

I suspect that you may be overstating maintenance costs on gasoline cars, and understating them on electric cars in order to make your point. Is that really necessary?

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