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Berkeley Lab releases 8th edition of databook on China’s energy and environment; finding the “missing” energy consumption

The China Energy Group of the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) recently released the eighth edition of the China Energy Databook—the most comprehensive publicly available resource known to exist covering China’s energy and environmental statistics.

China energy end use by sector (Mtce), 1980-2011.
Click to enlarge.
  Shares of energy end use by sector in China, 1980-2011. Click to enlarge.

In the five years since the China Energy Group of the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) released its last edition of the China Energy Databook, China has achieved two dubious distinctions: it surpassed the United States in energy consumption and it surpassed the United States in energy-related emissions of carbon dioxide, becoming the world leader on both scores.

In the 8th edition, the China Energy Group researchers have amassed an enormous trove of data from firsthand sources and organized much of it into a relational database, making it far more useful for research and analytical purposes.

We have gathered statistical information on energy and energy demand drivers from all different resources, such as the China Environment Yearbook, the Transportation Yearbook, the Power Yearbook, the Iron and Steel Yearbook, the Cement Almanac, statistics of oil companies and power companies. A library collection like this doesn’t exist anywhere else in the world.

—Lynn Price, head of the China Energy Group

One of the most important changes in the new edition is that it captures the extensive retroactive changes China has made to its energy consumption data.

They used a lot more coal than they originally admitted to, several hundred million tons more. Like many other people, we were writing articles around 2000 about the decline in China’s energy consumption in the late 1990s. Now the decline has completely disappeared—they found it. It was underreported.

—David Fridley, one of the two lead editors of this and several previous Databooks

Another major shift is that China has become a voracious energy importer, especially of coal and liquefied natural gas.

Like the United States, China has become among the world’s largest importers of oil, gas and coal. Compared to 2005-2006, it has probably doubled its presence. Certainly in coal—they imported virtually no coal in 2005 and they’re now importing close to 200 million tons. This is reflected in our chapter on imports and exports, which shows the impact of China on world energy markets.

—David Fridley

One chapter is devoted to international comparisons, allowing users a quick way to see how the nature of energy and economic activities differs from country to country. The main story in China, said Fridley, is the continued dominance of coal and the continued dominance of industry. Industry consumes two-thirds of China’s energy, compared to less than 30% in the United States. Relatedly, transportation accounts for only 15% of China’s energy consumption, compared to 30% in the United States.

The other part of the story is China’s dramatic jump in renewable energy production. Whereas the last version of the Databook did not even have data on wind and solar power generation, China is now among the top wind power producers in the world.

The Databook contains information for energy and environment at both the national and provincial levels, mainly from 1980 through 2011, with some data series beginning in 1949. There are bright spots in the data on China’s environment. Levels of sulfur dioxide, a pollutant emitted largely by power plants, and chemical oxygen demand, a measure of organic pollution in the water, are down even as CO2 emissions have continued to rise.

What they don’t report is PM2.5, which has moved to a position of top concern as major pollution events have hit north China. Instead they just have a general category of particulates.

—David Fridley

The Databook has undergone several changes in format over the last few decades. The first four editions were paper-based. But when the publication topped 400 pages, distribution was switched to CDs in 2001. At that time data related to China’s energy balance was put in a relational database and other datasets, such as energy efficiency, were put in spreadsheets.

The latest edition, with more than 140,000 datapoints, is the first that is available for download. The lead editors were Fridley and John Romankiewicz.


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