|Summary of the path to enable EVs to provide grid services. Source: CA ISO. Click to enlarge.|
The California Independent System Operator Corporation (ISO) has released a blueprint for integrating electric vehicles (EVs) into the grid: “California Vehicle-Grid Integration Roadmap: Enabling Vehicle-based Grid Services”.
The VGI blueprint outlines three inter-dependent tracks to assess how consumer use of electric vehicles could benefit electric reliability, and to determine policies and technologies necessary to elicit that value through appropriate market signals for a more reliable, sustainable electric grid.
In 2012, California Governor Jerry Brown issued an executive order setting a target of 1.5 million zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) on California roads by 2025. To realize this goal, the Governor’s Interagency Working Group on Zero-Emission Vehicles published a ZEV Action Plan. The Plan assigned the ISO to lead the coordinated roadmap effort in collaboration with the California Energy Commission, California Public Utilities Commission, the California Air Resources Board, the Governor’s office and industry stakeholders.
The VGI Roadmap accomplishes one of the ZEV Action Plan activities—mapping a way to develop solutions that enable EVs to provide grid services while still meeting consumer driving needs.
Creative approaches identified in this roadmap are expected to lead to EV charging behavior that is beneficial or at least not adverse to grid reliability. This roadmap also promotes the aggregation of EV resources that can be bid into the ISO’s wholesale market as grid services—leveraging the synergies between EVs and the grid.
Vehicle electrification and smart grid technology implementation present an opportunity for EVs, through charging strategies and aggregation, to support and provide valuable services to contribute to reliable management of the electricity grid. At a minimum, managed or smart charging strategies are needed to ensure that EVs do not increase peak load, requiring additional generation or capacity expansions. Ideally, charging is coordinated with grid conditions and the ability for aggregation of EVs to respond to grid operator signals. The VGI Roadmap provides a high-level plan to enable this combination of activities.—VGI Roadmap
The roadmap is organized in three inter-dependent tracks:
Determine VGI value. This track will determine the value and increase understanding of market potential for grid services enabled by VGI. This value determination will support how program developers and operators define VGI programs and facilitate industry investment decisions. Articulating value based on use cases is critical in Track 1.
The track activities include articulating VGI impacts to the electricity system, identifying and quantifying VGI value streams and cost components, and estimating VGI market potential for various VGI use cases.
Develop enabling policies, regulations, and business processes. This track includes activities to define wholesale and retail products and programs and associated policy. The program development will identify how VGI resources will interact with the grid at the distribution and wholesale levels, including compensation. It also includes clarifying settlement processes and defining signal and messaging interactions.
Support enabling technology development. This track includes activities to develop enabling technology including standards that support VGI aggregation, communication, and control requirements. Enabling VGI technology will facilitate EV aggregations to support grid services as articulated in the use cases. Policymakers, grid operators, and original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) must coordinate to enable VGI use cases that include two-way power flow.
The roadmap builds upon efforts already underway in both the private and public sectors to enable EV aggregations. Coordinating EV charging with grid conditions and providing a mechanism for EV aggregators to respond to the ISO’s market signals will maximize benefits gained from use of EVs. Relevant policy proceedings involving California and the ISO will contribute to this effort.
This roadmap is the first step toward defining future steps toward meeting the goal of EV aggregations contributing to grid reliability. Continued outreach is critical to the success of this roadmap and of VGI development in California. As next steps, the VGI working group expects to hold additional workshops to confirm approaches to prioritizing efforts in the VGI roadmap.
The Energy Commission will schedule annual workshops starting in 2014 to review progress on research and demonstration projects relating to VGI, such as the V2G pilots with the Department of Defense and VGI research under the new Electric Program Investment Charge (EPIC) program. The workshops will also solicit stakeholder feedback on the direction of research, and will help integrate the role of publicly-owned utilities in VGI development. VGI activities will also be discussed in workshops for the Statewide Plug-in Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Plan, and the findings related to VGI will be integrated into the Plan. These workshops will also reach out to the California’s publicly-owned utilities (POUs) to ensure the POUs are aware of these VGI activities as they implement their portion of the Governor’s ZEV Action Plan.—VGI Roadmap