|2013 STO-AVT electric bus test results chart: BYD Electric Bus energy consumption (Wh/km) over speed (km/h). Click to enlarge.|
The first phase of a ten-month trial for a 40-foot BYD battery-electric bus (which commenced the Summer of 2013) was completed in Gatineau, Québec and Ottawa, Ontario in December. (Although the bus drive is zero-emissions, in frigid weather bus-heating was supplemented with a small diesel heater integrated into the bus).
The evaluation, performed by the Société de transport de l’Outaouais (STO) in conjunction with AVT (the Société de gestion et d’acquisition de véhicules de transport), found that the average speed of drivers on Gatineau and Ottawa routes was 23 km/h (14 mph), and the resulting distance the BYD bus could travel at this average speed was 250 km (155 miles)—the equivalent of 1.3 kWh/km without air-conditioning and 1.5 kWh/km with air-conditioning, and full passenger loads).
The partial findings were presented at the 2013 EV/VE Conference and Tradeshow in Gatineau-Ottawa by Salah Barj, Director of Planning and Development at STO.
The report findings support BYD claims that the bus is efficient in the use of energy. BYD typically advertises a 250 km (or 155+ mile) operational range for its 40 foot bus. However, BYD claims that when driven by an operator who understands the vehicle and how to optimize regenerative braking, the bus range could well exceed 250 km.
The range is a direct attribute of the sizing of the BYD’s Iron-Phosphate battery. BYD provides the largest battery of any electric bus supplier today with a 324 kWh total energy storage capacity. Further, BYD claims (as shown in the chart above) that when bus average speeds increased up to the maximum speed of 70 km/h (43 mph), that the overall bus efficiencies increased to 0.75 kWh/km traveled (equivalent to 1.2 kWh/mile) and the difference between “with” and “without air conditioning” is lessened.
The battery-electric bus was supplied by BYD Company under a service agreement and continues its evaluations in partnership with the Société de transport de Montreal (STM) until Spring of 2014.
The BYD electric bus was nothing like anything we had seen or tested before, it was able to run our required 8-hour shift in service with only a night-time single charge at our bus garage. BYD’s bus itself has on-board chargers so that only 60 kW of grid AC power was delivered at night to the bus through a power interface. This made for very convenient charging of the electric bus so that no peak-rate power was consumed.—Salah Barj
AVT was formed by Québec’s nine transit corporations for the evaluating of advanced, zero-emissions public transit technologies. The AVT team acquires buses and manages contracts for companies within the Urban Transit Association of Quebec (ATUQ) which includes: Société de transport de Montreal (STM); Transportation System Capital - Québec (RTC); BC Transit; Translink; Network transport de Longueuil (RTL); Société de transport de Laval (STL); Transit Corporation Levis; Société de transport de l’Outaouais (STO); Transportation Company Saguenay (STS); Société de transport de Sherbrooke; andSociété de transport de Trois-Rivières (STTR).