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8-state alliance releases action plan to put 3.3M ZEVs on their roads by 2025

Projected ZEV compliance scenario for the eight states. Click to enlarge.

Eight partnering states released their Multi-State ZEV Action Plan as the first promised milestone for the bi-coastal collaboration to pave the way for increasingly large numbers of zero emission vehicles: plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and hydrogen-powered fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). The partner states are California, Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island and Vermont. Together they represent about a quarter of the nation’s new car sales.

The governors of the 8 states began this latest collaboration with the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on 24 October 2013. (Earlier post.) The ultimate goal is to reduce greenhouse gas and smog-causing emissions by transforming the transportation sector over the next 11 years.

Since the MOU signing, state regulators, the auto industry and infrastructure developers and other stakeholders have shared information and best practices to help move this effort forward.

To date, manufacturers have rolled out more than 2 dozen models in the three ZEV categories. As of April 2014, nearly 200,000 have been sold nationwide. Sales have doubled over the past year alone, with more than half of those sales occurring in the MOU signatory states.

The 8-State ZEV Action Plan provides an overview of the current state of the market. It also provides an agenda to accelerate the development of that market. At the heart of the plan are 11 Key Actions to be taken by all the partners, and the elements needed to successfully complete those actions. The Key Actions are:

  1. Promote the availability and effective marketing of all plug-in electric vehicle models in the states and support these efforts. This will include working with the automobile manufacturers and dealers to ensure that all plug-in electric vehicle models are available for sale and aggressively marketed in all MOU states.

    It also includes working with automakers and dealers to identify, evaluate, and implement creative financing approaches and other effective strategies to reduce vehicle purchase price and increase ZEV sales.

  2. Provide consumer incentives to enhance the ZEV ownership experience. A number of actions are proposed here, including supporting and enabling reciprocity for non-monetary ZEV incentives across MOU states; establishing a common image or decal to identify qualifying vehicles; and evaluating opportunities to increase the effectiveness of state-provided purchase incentives by converting them to “point-of-purchase” rebates to provide a stronger incentive at the time of sale and to qualify more consumers for the full value of this sales incentive.

    The action plan also suggests conducting a collective study to evaluate the effectiveness of various local, state, and national ZEV incentives to inform state and local government policy.

  3. Lead by example through increasing ZEVs in state, municipal, and other public fleets. The plans calls for establishing a goal that a minimum of 25% of new light-duty state fleet purchases and leases for applicable uses, to the extent available, will be ZEVs by 2025.

  4. Encourage private fleets to purchase, lease, or rent ZEVs. The plan suggests implementing high profile public-private programs, such as Governors’ events and recognition programs, to promote and encourage ZEVs in private fleets and workplace charging programs. It also suggests coordinating with academics, nonprofit partners, and the US DOE to help fleet managers develop the business case for integrating ZEVs into their fleets.

  5. Promote workplace charging. The plan calls for a goal that by 2020, all interested state agency employees with plug-in vehicles (PEVs) will have a place to charge them. The plan also suggests promoting the installation of charging infrastructure for commuters at public transit hubs.

  6. Promote ZEV infrastructure planning and investment by public and private entities. This will entail researching driver charging behavior to determine the need for non-residential charging, including the level of charging and importance of location, as well as collaborating in the coordinated deployment of DC fast chargers along key inter-state corridors to facilitate long-range PEV travel along priority roadways. (Examples are the I-95 Northeast Corridor and the I-5 West Coast Highway.)

    The plan further suggests coordinating with researchers to undertake multi-state mapping and modeling analyses to inform the design and implementation of efficient corridor charging networks, and pursuing resource partnerships to design and execute a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle infrastructure feasibility study for the MOU states outside of California.

    All appropriate charging/fueling installations receiving public funding should be open to the public and accessible to all PEV/FCEV drivers.

  7. Provide clear and accurate signage to direct ZEV users to charging and fueling stations and parking. Coordinating with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) should ensure sufficient and up-to-date coverage of uniform signage on federal highways using the “Alternative Electric Vehicle Charging Symbol Sign.”

  8. Remove barriers to ZEV charging and fueling station installations. A key task here is the development of consistent policies, codes and standards to facilitate the deployment of charging stations. The plan suggests coordinating with nonprofit groups developing model codes and standards to promote consistency in the development of state and local government requirements related to the installation of PEV charging infrastructure.

    The plan also calls for establishing consistent codes and standards for ZEV infrastructure through revisions to national and state building codes.

  9. Promote access, compatibility, and interoperability of the plug-in electric vehicle charging network. The plan supports the adoption and implementation of effective National Institute of Standards and Technology standards for EVSE interoperability as a basic step.

  10. Remove barriers to retail sale of electricity and hydrogen as transportation fuels and promote competitive plug-in electric vehicle charging rates. Appropriate legislation, regulations, standards, or certifications will be needed to enable the commercial sale of electric vehicle charging and hydrogen as transportation fuel, including on a per-kilowatt-hour or on a per-kilogram basis, and ensure transparent pricing.

  11. Track and report progress toward meeting the goal of 3.3 million ZEVs on our roadways by 2025. The plan calls for annual reports on the number of ZEVs registered in the states; the number of public fueling stations; and the number of ZEV acquisitions in state fleets.

The ZEV action plan also includes steps individual states may take, as well as examples of successful existing state programs to improve the experience of drivers and owners.

Key research needs identified in the Action Plan include:

  1. Consumer charging behavior research to evaluate the need for non-residential charging infrastructure in terms of location and charging level.

  2. Multi-state mapping and modeling analyses to inform the design and implementation of efficient corridor charging networks.

  3. Evaluation of network designs for optimal PEV charging.

  4. Design and execution of a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle infrastructure feasibility study for the MOU states outside of California.

  5. Evaluation of the effectiveness of various local, state and national purchase incentives.

  6. Assessment of creative vehicle financing innovations.

  7. Consumer and market research to better understand how ZEVs are being used, consumer needs, and owner interests to inform ZEV policies and programs.

  8. Outreach to fleet owners to enhance understanding of their needs and interests and develop a business case for private fleet managers to integrate ZEVs into their fleets.

  9. Evaluation of best practices and innovative approaches to ZEV marketing by automobile dealers and analysis of the effectiveness of ZEV marketing by manufacturers.

  10. Evaluation of the impact of expanding ZEV model availability on unique state fleet mix issues.

  11. Evaluation of “smart” charging options to save consumers money and minimize grid impacts.

  12. Promotion and support of research on emerging issues, such as vehicle-to-grid options and the development of advanced technologies and methods for the safe and efficient recycling of battery packs from plug-in electric vehicles.

  13. Evaluation of the logistical and financial impact on municipalities that provide preferential and reduced rate parking for ZEV.

  14. Assessment of policies and incentives to increase ZEVs in rental car and car-sharing fleets, particularly for use in high-profile locations such as airports, through financial subsidies or state contract preferences.

  15. Technology assessment of the performance, durability, and cost of battery and fuel cell technologies, including cold temperature operation.

  16. Development of effective public outreach initiatives.

  17. Development of a guide for costs and considerations to install EVSE for businesses and governments, including the economic benefits associated with providing PEV charging services for industry members such as home builders associations, the hospitality industry, etc.


Roger Pham

All well and good!...and here are some of my suggestions:

1. Be sure that PHEV's and BEV's will have plenty of trunk space on par with ICEV's. This can be done by reduce the fuel tank to 1/2, putting some of the battery under the two front seats, as well as downsize the engine to 2-3 cylinders so that some battery capacity can be put in the front as well. Tesla will have it easy due to their under-the-floor battery design and compact and light-weight batteries.

2. Also, be sure that PHEV's are not too much heavier than ICEV's. Same as above, with emphasis on keeping the battery pack below 10 kWh to keep the wt. and cost down.

3. Mandate or encourage charging sockets at every locations that handicap parkings are required. This measure is budget neutral, yet will allow small-capacity PHEV's to drive all day w/out requiring to fire up the engine and wasting fuel, while keeping the cost and weight of PHEV down and increase trunk space.

4. BUDGET-NEUTRAL incentives to buy PEV's. (Tax incentives are simply too costly and will cause more budget deficits!) Simply a low-interest loan for PEV buyers so that the buyer will pay the same price for a PEV as that of a comparable ICEV. This loan will be paid off monthly over 10 year's time. In 10 year's time, the owner will like save $20,000 in a PHEV or BEV, and $10,000 in a full HEV due to savings in fuel costs and maintenance and repair costs.

So, the owner will pay less monthly for both energy cost and loan payment than the combination of gasoline cost and yearly maintenance cost for an ICEV, while the government will lose nothing when the loans will be paid off gradually, and the prospective PEV buyer will practically pay the same initial purchasing cost for a PEV as he/she would pay for a comparable ICEV. No one will then be able to complain that PHEV or BEV cost too much!


One thing these States have to make sure they do is allow the Tesla to be sold. Until recently Dealers in New York were blocking the company's sales plan;

I think Maryland still is.



While I do not like the current dealership model, I also do not buy the idea that "Tesla EVs are different".

I don't believe that cars must be sold by independent dealerships, however at the same time, Tesla should get no special treatment.

The idea that dealerships would not sell Tesla vehicles due to EV characteristics is absolutely ridiculous. Model S sells itself, any dealership in its right mind would kill to have a Tesla franchise. In my opinion, Tesla wants to keep the profit margins (which is fine by me) but is using a BS argument to do so.

If Tesla can sell direct to customers, then all OEMs should be allowed to do so.


"Some people who expected electric cars (broadly defined to include plug-in hybrids like the Volt, where the gas engine never directly drives the wheels) to immediately take over the world upon being unleashed on the market are disappointed by EV sales so far. But if life has taught us one thing, it's that patience and perspective are important.

Four years after being launched in North-America in 2000, the Toyota Prius hybrid had cumulative sales of around 52,000 (the Prius passed 3 million units sold last summer), according to IHS Automotive. Four years after launch, the Nissan LEAF electric car had cumulative sales of over 100,000 units. Four years in, the Chevrolet Volt and its European twin the Ampera have over 70,000 units sold. The Tesla Model S hasn't been around for four years, but its cumulative sales should be over 30,000 now, and accelerating fast. And then there are all kinds of other plug-ins selling in fewer numbers but making progress, with new models waiting in the wings."


Not sure why you are bringing this straw man into the discussion. Tesla has not entered any franchise agreement and is thus not, unlike other manufacturers, bound by such an agreement. NADA is the one trying to bend the law to their advantage, not Tesla. NADA has tried to sue in court and got kicked out. Only after they failed in court they started with dirty politics.



In a blog post on Thusday, Musk said Tesla has removed the patents decorating the wall of the company’s Palo Alto headquarters — a symbolic move to coincide with this announcement. Tesla’s billionaire cofounder and CEO writes that the company “will not initiate patent lawsuits against anyone who, in good faith, wants to use our technology.”

This is a reversal in policy for Tesla, as Musk describes: “We felt compelled to create patents out of concern that the big car companies would copy our technology and then use their massive manufacturing, sales and marketing power to overwhelm Tesla. We couldn’t have been more wrong. The unfortunate reality is the opposite: electric car programs (or programs for any vehicle that doesn’t burn hydrocarbons) at the major manufacturers are small to non-existent, constituting an average of far less than 1% of their total vehicle sales.”

Musk says that the new open source policy’s goal is to help stem climate change. He writes: “It is impossible for Tesla to build electric cars fast enough to address the carbon crisis.”

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