|New D-4D diesel. Click to enlarge.|
Toyota’s Land Cruiser off-road 4WD vehicle in Europe is now available with a new 2.8 liter D-4D turbo-diesel. The engine replaces the current 3.0-liter engine, with a focus on improved driveability with better torque delivery, plus lower fuel consumption and reduced CO2 emissions. It delivers 130 kW/177 DIN hp @ 3400 rpm and can be mated to a 6-speed manual gearbox or a new 6-speed automatic transmission.
Available on 3-door and 5-door models, Toyota’s newly developed 2.8 D-4D Global Diesel (GD) engine combines an 11% increase in low speed torque and a 7% increase in maximum torque with a 9% reduction in average fuel consumption. The engine features Toyota’s first urea Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system that can eliminate up to 99% of NOx emissions.
The new 2,755 cc, 16 valve, DOHC four-cylinder engine comes equipped with a new, variable nozzle turbocharger with intercooler.
Mated to the new 6-speed Super ECT automatic transmission, the 2.8 D-4D develops 370 N·m (273 lb-ft) of torque at only 1,200 rpm, and a maximum 450 N·m (332 lb-ft) of torque between 1,600 and 2,400 rpm. It will accelerate from 0-100 km/h in 12.7 seconds, and on to a top speed of 175 km/h. Average fuel consumption and CO2 emissions are reduced by 9% to 7.4 l/100 km (32 mpg US)—7.2 l/100 km (33 mpg US) for 3-door—and 194 g/km (190 g/km for 3-door) respectively.
When mated to the 6-speed manual transmission, the Land Cruiser 2.8 D-4D develops maximum of 420 N·m (310 lb-ft) of torque between 1,400 and 2,400 rpm. It will accelerate from 0-100 km/h in 12.1 seconds, and on to a top speed of 175 km/h while returning an average fuel consumption of 7.4 l/100 km (7.2 l/100 km for 3-door) and CO2 emissions of 194 g/km (190 g/km for 3-door).
The new 2.8 D-4D engine incorporates a comprehensive range of measures designed to save weight, enhance combustion efficiency and reduce friction.
A resin head cover has been adopted, and the thickness of the entire cylinder head has been reduced. The resultant weight reduction contributes significantly to improving fuel efficiency.
The efficiency of the intake and exhaust ports, and the fuel injection system, has been optimized to maximise torque. Two intake ports are used in unison, according to the engine speed: a tangential port that produces a high swirl flow, agitating the air/fuel mixture to enhance combustion efficiency, and a helical port that achieves a high flow volume.
The engine features an electronically controlled, common-rail type fuel injection system that achieves higher pressure and more advanced injection pressure control. A new piston shape has been adopted to match the new shape of the combustion chamber.
Precise pilot injection matching the state of the ambient air occurs before the main injection to shorten ignition delay, combining stable combustion in even the world’s harshest environments with quiet operation and high thermal efficiency.
The new turbocharger is 30% smaller than its predecessor and features a newly-developed turbine for improved efficiency, and a newly-developed impeller that provides instantaneous acceleration response and produces maximum torque over a wide rev range.
The unit is equipped with a water-cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system with an EGR cooler bypass function, and also benefits from a swirl control valve in the intake manifold.
The adjacent positioning of the catalyst combines cleaner performance with a reduction in size of some 30% and a reduction in the number of exhaust system components from 18 to just three. The elimination of up to 99% of NOx emissions through use of Toyota’s urea Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system ensures the 2.8 D-4D Land Cruiser complies with Euro 6 regulations.
Mechanical friction within the engine has been minimized through the adoption of a high-efficiency vacuum pump, a roller rocker-type valve train and a low friction timing chain, further improving combustion efficiency.
The 2.8 D-4D engine is mated to a 6-speed Super intelligent Electronically Controlled automatic Transmission (6 Super ECT) which benefits from several new control systems designed to improve both fuel economy and driving performance.
High-speed Gear Effective Utilisation Control determines the availability of high-speed gears in real time according to driving conditions. For instance, taking into account vehicle loading and throttle setting, the system will determine whether 6th gear is available or the vehicle should remain in 5th to achieve the optimum balance of driving power and fuel efficiency.
Deceleration Downshift Control optimises downshifts when decelerating to improve fuel efficiency. The fuel supply is automatically cut off during periods of engine braking, unless engine speed drops to the low rpm threshold, when fuel injection is resumed to prevent engine stalling. Accordingly, the transmission maximises engine braking by selecting a lower gear to prevent engine speed dropping below the low rpm threshold, thus extending fuel cut off periods to drastically enhance fuel economy.
Artificial Intelligence (AI)-SHIFT Control incorporates Accelerator Immediate Close and Immediate Open Control. The former makes it easier to maintain the current gear when the accelerator pedal is suddenly released, enhancing both engine braking force and responsiveness when accelerating again. The latter performs downshifts immediately on sudden depression of the accelerator pedal, enhancing throttle response.
Suspension. The Land Cruiser benefits from a front independent double wishbone and rear four-link with lateral rod suspension. The shock absorber oil seal construction and damping force have been optimized to help ensure reliability whilst improving handling stability and ride comfort.
The Land Cruiser may also be equipped with an electronically modulated Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System (KDSS), which optimises the effect of the front and rear stabilizers for enhanced performance both on- and off-road.
The front cylinder rod diameter, rear cylinder piston diameter, front stabilizer bar diameter and thickness, front stabilizer bush inner diameter, front lower arm stabilizer bracket thickness and frame KDSS bracket thickness have all been developed to ensure a gentle vehicle behavior, revising the front/rear weight transfer while cornering, and promoting excellent handling stability and ride comfort.
The Land Cruiser further benefits from an Adaptive Variable Suspension (AVS) system which allows the driver to fine tune the vehicle’s ride characteristics with a choice of ‘Normal’, ‘Comfort’ and ‘Sport’ settings.
Operating in conjunction with AVS, an electronically modulated rear air suspension features five control modes—including an Auto Leveling function and a switchable Height Control function—to maintain optimum control of the rear four-link with lateral rod suspension regardless of occupant numbers or payload.
Off-Road Performance. Off-road, KDSS virtually disconnects both front and rear stabilizer bars, further enhancing the Land Cruiser’s outstanding wheel articulation to ensure ground contact for all tires over even the most severe terrain. And both AVS and the electronically modulated rear air suspension systems feature bespoke, off-road settings to maximize the vehicle’s all-terrain abilities.
The Land Cruiser’s proven, permanent four-wheel drive, two-motor transfer system employs a Torsen Limited Slip Differential (LSD) in the center differential. It is capable of automatically varying torque distribution between the front and rear wheels from 50:50 to approximately 30:70, in order to provide optimum torque distribution for any given scenario. In addition, the rear differential may be locked to maximise the vehicle’s off-road capabilities.
Further enhancing the Land Cruiser’s permanent four-wheel drive technology, an Active Traction Control system (A-TRC) uses both brake and engine control to distribute torque appropriately to all four wheels.
Available on all models with six-speed automatic transmission a Multi-Terrain Select system (MTS) offers drivers a choice of five terrain modes: Mud & Sand, Loose Rock, Mogul, Rock and Dirt & Rock. The system automatically modifies the vehicle’s throttle, braking and traction control systems to suit the off-road conditions, providing the driver with optimum traction and vehicle control for any given scenario.
Offering a choice of five speed settings, Crawl Control automatically controls the engine and brakes to maintain a set vehicle speed, helping the driver slowly descent or ascend slopes at a walking pace, or free the vehicle when stuck, without the need to touch the pedals.
Off-Road Driver Assistance. Easy control of these diverse systems and monitoring of the vehicle’s off-road performance is ensured by the center console control panel and the addition of a multi-information screen.
Central to the panel, a switchable dial offers control of both the Multi-terrain Select system and Crawl Control speed adjustment. The panel further incorporates 4WD, AVS, MTS and Crawl Control, and center and rear differential locking switches, offering drivers complete control of all the Land Cruiser’s off-road systems via one intuitive, simple-to-operate panel.
Located between the Optitron meters in the driver’s instrument binnacle, a 4.2" color Thin Film Transistor (TFT) multi-information display operates in conjunction with the steering wheel-mounted multi-information switch to provide the driver with a comprehensive range of vehicle information. This includes MTS mode and prompting, vehicle suspension height and off-road system operation in real time.
Enhanced off-road driving assistance is provided by an angle gauge, traction control operation at each wheel and differential lock operation screens. Information regarding individual wheel traction control, steering angle and differential lock operation can be displayed simultaneously, enhancing driver assistance during challenging off-road conditions.
When MTS begins operation, a Multi-terrain Monitor will automatically display the view ahead of the vehicle on the 7" center console display screen. Using front, front and rear side, and rear cameras, the system features a versatile display mode capable of showing either independent or combined, front, side and rear views.
The Multi-terrain Monitor also displays a comprehensive range of additional information, including the view range of the cameras, the locations of obstacles detected by the clearance sonar, steering linked guide lines which predict the path of the front tires, vehicle width and length parallel lines, and the position of the front and rear tire contact patches.