Testing, which is still ongoing, is showing that Finnish wood-based UPM BioVerno diesel (earlier post) significantly reduces harmful tailpipe emissions. A number of engine and vehicle tests have been carried out across a number of research institutes such as VTT Technical Research Center of Finland Lt;, University of Vaasa in Finland; and at FEV.
UPM BioVerno renewable diesel has already been shown to function just like conventional diesel in all diesel engines, while generating up to 80% fewer greenhouse gas emissions during its lifecycle compared to conventional fossil diesel fuels. The latest test results show that UPM BioVerno also reduces harmful tailpipe emissions.
These emissions—including particulate matter (PM), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), NOx and carbon monoxide (CO)—were reduced by up to dozens of percent compared to conventional diesel fuel, depending on vehicle technology and blend. All the tests showed similar or improved efficiency of the engine, without compromising the engine power, when UPM BioVerno was introduced to the fuel blend. In addition, using 100% UPM BioVerno diesel decreased fuel consumption.
FEV Germany carried out a series of tests on UPM BioVerno’s effect on engine functionality and emissions with both a diesel blend containing 30% UPM BioVerno and 100% UPM BioVerno diesel. In addition to measuring engine output and fuel consumption, the tests focused on tailpipe emissions and the performance of UPM BioVerno compared with conventional diesel.
UPM BioVerno renewable diesel is produced from wood-based tall oil. Crude tall is a natural extract of wood, mainly from conifers. The renewable raw material comes from sustainably managed forests. Crude tall oil is gained as a result of the separation process of fibrous material from wood; it is a residue of pulp manufacturing. The production process was developed in the UPM Biorefinery Research and Development Center in Lappeenranta, Finland.
The UPM Lappeenranta Biorefinery, which produces Bioverno renewable diesel, is located on the same site as the UPM Kaukas pulp and paper mill. Built with an investment of €175 million, the biorefinery has an annual production capacity for renewable diesel of 100,000 tonnes, or 120 million liters (32 million gallons US).
UPM BioVerno renewable diesel was investigated in a screening campaign at FEV Germany. The results showed that even as a 30% blending component, the accumulated HC emissions were reduced by more than 50% and the CO emissions by more than 40% compared to reference fossil diesel. Our tests also showed good results in NOx emissions and efficiency.—Dr. Ing. Thorsten Schnorbus, Manager Passenger Car Diesel, FEV
UPM BioVerno was also tested in University of Vaasa, Finland using a heavy-duty engine. These experiments were performed in the Technobothnia Education and Research Center in Vaasa.
The engine experiments with a modern Finnish off-road engine showed that the more UPM BioVerno there was in the fuel blend, the lower were the CO and HC emissions of the engine. The lowest CO and HC emissions were recorded when running the engine with 100% BioVerno. Neat BioVerno was also very favorable when looking at nanoparticle number emissions at idle. For all studied fuels and fuel blends, the smoke readings were very low.—Seppo Niemi, Professor in Energy technology, Faculty of technology, University of Vaasa