Current mild-hybrid vehicle projects, in partnership with Ford and Hyundai/Kia, that utilize advanced 48V lead-carbon batteries, can reduce CO2 emissions by 15-20%, according to the latest data from the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), presented at the Advanced Automotive Battery Conference (25-28 January, Mainz).
The T-Hybrid (based on a Kia Optima) (earlier post) and the ADEPT (based on a Ford Focus) (earlier post) both utilize an advanced 48V lead-carbon battery system with bolt-on electrical components that allow for significant engine-downsizing without loss in performance.
This engine downsizing means less fuel usage and subsequently lower CO2 emissions compared to the base vehicle—including a 16% reduction in the Kia Optima.
Project Partners for the T-Hybrid include ALABC, Hyundai Motor Group, AVL Schrick, Valeo, and East Penn Manufacturing.
This concept vehicle is powered by the Optima’s existing 1.7 liter CRDi turbo-diesel engine, paired with a Valeo 10 kW electric starter generator and electric supercharger powered by a 48V version of East Penn’s lead-carbon UltraBattery system.
The diesel-electric powertrain concept enables the T-Hybrid (turbo-hybrid) to be driven in electric-only mode at low speeds and when cruising, with deceleration serving to recharge the battery pack. It includes start-stop functionality and regenerative braking, but also provides the enhanced power and torque at low speeds that have made it popular in test drives.
Some of the support for the Kia Project was obtained through special funding from ALABC members such as the RSR Corporation, the Doe Run Company, Teck Metals, Acumuladores Moura, Britannia Refined Metals.
The low additional cost of introducing 48V mild-hybrid powertrains is continuing to attract automakers because it is the most cost-effective means of complying with stringent CO2 regulations over the next 10 years.—Alistair Davidson, ALABC
The ADEPT vehicle has undergone early testing, and is targeting to cut CO2 emissions levels to 75g CO2CO2km—far below the EU requirements for CO2 levels. New automotive designs in the EU are currently required to emit no more than 130 grams of CO2 per kilometer (g CO2/km), and by 2021, automakers will need to reduce that by an additional 28% to meet the requirement of 95g CO2/km.
Project partners in ADEPT include ALABC, Ford Motor Company, Ricardo, CPT, Provector, Faurecia, the University of Nottingham, and the University of Sheffield.
Based on a Ford Focus, the ADEPT (Advanced Diesel Electric Powertrain) combines low-cost, micro/mild hybrid technologies to reduce CO2 emissions by an additional 15-20%. This vehicle indicates a pathway to 70g/km at a cost/emissions reduction ratio superior to a full-hybrid solution.
The system includes regenerative braking and other efficiency improvements for optimized oil flow and pressure control, as well as a 48V electric turbine that captures exhaust waste heat for conversion to additional recovered electrical energy. However, unlike the T-Hybrid, it does not have an electric supercharger but will rely solely on the starter/generator for initial torque assist on the engine.
The 48V vehicles also solve some of the problems with making 48V low-emission systems appealing to the general consumer, ALABC said.
By downsizing and down-speeding the engine to reduce CO2 emissions, you significantly reduce the vehicle’s performance, making it less fun to drive. But by adding electrical components like the Valeo supercharger and the CPT SpeedStart ISG, you can give a 1.4 liter engine the performance of a 1.8 liter engine or better, and still provide the same enhanced emission benefits. In essence, this system allows you to reduce fuel consumption with additional electrical components, but increase performance while still maintaining a low production cost because of the use of lead-carbon batteries.—Allan Cooper, European projects coordinator for ALABC
Advanced lead batteries are 99% recyclable, and are significantly cheaper than alternative battery technologies used in HEVs.