Singapore considers Model S EV a high carbon emission vehicle based on fuel consumption and upstream power generation
Channel NewsAsia recently reported on the case of a Tesla Model S owner in Singapore who, rather than receiving the Carbon Emissions-based Vehicle Scheme (CEVS) rebate he expected of S$15,000 (US$10,841) was hit with a CEVS surcharge of S$15,000 for having high carbon emissions.
Under Singapore’s revised Carbon Emissions-Based Vehicle Scheme (CEVS), all new cars and imported used cars registered from 1 July 2015 with low carbon emissions of less than or equal to 135g CO2/km qualify for rebates of between S$5,000 (US$3,614) and S$30,000 (US$21,681), which are offset against the vehicle’s Additional Registration Fee (ARF). Cars with high carbon emissions equal to or more than 186g CO2/km incur a registration surcharge of between S$5,000 and S$30,000.
The revised CEVS is applicable until 30 June 2017, after which it will be subject to further review.
|Singapore revised CEVS bands|
|Band||Carbon Emission(CO2 g/km)||Cars||Taxis||Rebates/Surcharges|
|A1||Up to 95||$30,000||$45,000||Rebates|
As Channel NewsAsia determined, Singapore’s Land Transport Authority (LTA), the agency responsible for planning, operating, and maintaining Singapore’s land transport infrastructure and systems, tested the Models S using United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) R101 standards. The result was that the electric energy consumption of was 444 Wh/km. (This figure is approaching twice that of the US EPA’s estimate of 235.6 Wh/km (38 kWh/100 miles) for the Model S 90.)
Singapore applies a grid emission factor of 0.5 g CO2/Wh to all electric vehicles for CEVS analysis to account for CO2 emissions during the electricity generation process. As a result, the equivalent CO2 footprint of the Model S was 222g/km—placing it in the CEVS C3 surcharge band (216 to 230 g/km), along with, for example, the Lexus RX270 and the Maserati Ghibli.
(Using the EPA-estimated fuel consumption of 235.6 Wh/km would have resulted in a carbon footprint of 118 g CO2e/km. That would have nestled the Tesla in the CEVS A3 band (106 to 120 g/km), for a S$10,000 rebate.)
The LTA spokesperson said that the Tesla was not the first fully electric car where grid emission factor was applied. Others, however, qualified for the rebate.
In the US, the fueleconomy.gov website, the official US government online source for fuel economy information, enables users to calculate the upstream GHG emissions from power generation based on location, for use in estimating the full carbon footprint of an EV. (The calculation for “Tailpipe & upstream GHG” is found under the “Energy and Environment” tab for individual vehicles.
As an example, the same Model S with a 90 kWh pack would have a US average carbon footprint of 250 g/mile (155 g/km); 150 g/mile (96 g/km) in North County, San Diego; and 270 g/mile (167 g/km) in Henderson, KY, home to some of the most carbon-intense power generation in the US.