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Ultra high-strength materials reduce heavy-duty cylinder liner distortion; GOE330 compacted graphite iron

Federal-Mogul Powertrain has become the first company to bring ultra high-strength iron cylinder liners into series production. Made of a special form of compacted graphite iron (CGI), the latest formulation—designated GOE330—reduces the typical bore distortion under maximum piston side thrust by up to 27%, compared to existing iron materials. It is used in liner applications between 100 mm and 190 mm bore.

The Young’s Modulus of GOE330 is more than 15% greater than existing high-strength iron liner materials, while at 270 MPa its fatigue strength is approximately one-third higher. Future developments are planned that will achieve even higher levels of strength and stiffness.

Federal-Mogul has been developing the material for some time, first reporting on GOE330 and GOE323 in a paper in 2006. GOE330 is a cast iron with compacted or vermiculite graphite that is distributed in the microstructure in the shape of vermicula (tiny worms).

In situ prediction for bore distortion, using calibrated FEA simulation. Source: Federal-Mogul. Click to enlarge.

Bore distortion under load makes sealing between the liner and the ring pack more difficult, leading to increased oil consumption and greater wear. If ring tension is increased to compensate, it leads to higher friction and greater fuel consumption.

By developing new liner materials with higher strength and stiffness, we enable our OEM customers to develop more efficient engines, using higher peak cylinder pressures. We also make it possible for them to use thinner liners, resulting in more compact engine designs.

—Gian Maria Olivetti, Chief Technology Officer, Federal-Mogul Powertrain

Temperature distribution for a wet cylinder liner, mounted and in operation. Source: Federal-Mogul. Click to enlarge.

The off-highway sector—construction, agricultural and industrial applications—has been first to recognize the benefits of ultra high-strength liners, but Federal-Mogul Powertrain also expects growing interest in the technology from marine, power generation and on-highway heavy-duty engine manufacturers.

Federal-Mogul Powertrain has extensive experience of liner material development and also of the comprehensive simulation and analysis required to optimize the geometry of a new liner application under different thermal and mechanical loads. This is supported by rig tests prior to engine application testing, using the company’s in-house designed, Hydropulser test bench to reproduce fatigue loads resulting from piston side-thrust.

To ensure that every production liner meets the same high performance standards as the initial samples, Federal-Mogul Powertrain uses advanced high quality manufacturing equipment to optimize tolerance and honing control. Similar emphasis on metrology after manufacture confirms the geometric forms and surface topography.

We understand that individual applications and markets are driven by different priorities and we cater for each with alternative solutions. For some of our customers, the liner is a commodity where value and local sourcing are key influences; for others, more challenging design targets and load requirements necessitate superior mechanical properties, such as those provided by GOE330.

—Dr. Volker Scherer, Director, Liners, Federal-Mogul Powertrain

Examples of the liner technologies will be shown on Federal-Mogul’s stand at IAA Commercial Vehicles Hanover in September.

Federal-Mogul was founded in Detroit in 1899 and maintains its worldwide headquarters in Southfield, Michigan. The Company has more than 53,000 employees globally.


  • Steffen Hoppe, Eric Fritsche (2006) “High-performance cylinder liners for diesel engines” MTZ worldwide Volume 67, Issue 2, pp 23-24 doi: 10.1007/BF03227825


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