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Lung Association report highlights health and climate costs of petroleum-based transportation and the benefits of shifting to ZEVs

A new report produced by the American Lung Association concludes that over-reliance on petroleum-based fuels for transportation costs the 10 ZEV states in the US (California and nine other states that have adopted the California Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) program) an estimated $37 billion in health expenses and climate costs every year—with California costs alone hitting $15 billion.

Of that $37 billion, health costs added up to $24 billion in 2015; the $24 billion represents the monetized sum of harmful emissions responsible for an estimated 220,000 work-loss days, more than 109,000 asthma exacerbations, hundreds of thousands of other respiratory impacts, and 2,580 premature deaths.

The report, Clean Air Future: Health and Climate Benefits of Zero Emission Vehicles, was produced by the American Lung Association in California. Under this report’s “ZEV Future” scenario, 100% of the new car sales and approximately 65% of all cars on the road are assumed to be ZEVs by 2050 in the 10 ZEV States.

Under this scenario, the estimated total health and climate change costs associated with passenger vehicle fleet pollution drops from to $37 billion annually to $15.7 billion by 2050. Annual pollution-related impacts drop by more than 85% due to fewer lost work days caused by pollution-related illnesses, fewer asthma attacks and fewer premature deaths.

For the average driver, every tank of gas burned costs $18.42 in hidden health and climate costs. Relying almost exclusively on oil for transportation hurts our air, our health, and our environment. The answer is to move to passenger vehicles that run on clean, renewable energy, and the Zero Emission Vehicle program that has been adopted by 10 states is key.

—Bonnie Holmes-Gen, senior director of Air Quality and Climate Change with the American Lung Association in California

In addition to California, the ZEV states are Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island and Vermont. The report analyzes current and projected emissions while looking at the estimated societal benefits of policies designed to transition to a zero-emission fleet over the coming decades.

To clarify regional costs, the report breaks down the costs of smog, soot and climate pollution caused by passenger vehicles in each of the 10 ZEV states. As of 2015, those costs are:

  • California: $15 billion
  • New York: $7.9 billion
  • New Jersey: $4.6 billion
  • Massachusetts: $2.9 billion
  • Maryland: $2.6 billion
  • Connecticut: $1.4 billion
  • Oregon: $1.3 billion
  • Maine: $513 million
  • Rhode Island: $407 million
  • Vermont: $347 million

A separate analysis using the social cost of carbon estimated the annual climate benefits from the transition to cleaner vehicles through 2050.

  • The health benefits of the ZEV Future scenario include an estimated $13 billion annual savings in 2030 and $21 billion annual savings in 2050 from fewer air pollution (smog and soot) related health impacts, including asthma attacks, lost work days and premature deaths. The analysis finds 1,429 fewer premature deaths due to vehicle pollution in 2030 and 2,246 fewer premature deaths in 2050 under the ZEV Future scenario.

  • Climate benefits include $5.5 billion annual savings in 2030 and $12.8 billion annual savings in 2050. This value is calculated by applying the social cost of carbon to the tons of greenhouse gas emissions reduced each year, demonstrating avoided climate damage, including harm to human health, agriculture and the environment.

The report makes a number of recommendations to realize the estimated benefits presented:

  1. The California Air Resources Board should strengthen the California ZEV program in 2017 to ensure that 1.5 million ZEVs are on the road in California and more than 3 million are on the road in the 10 ZEV States by 2025 and ensure that 15% of all new cars and light trucks sold will be required to be ZEVs. California must also stay the course on ending the loophole (called the “Travel Provision”) that stalls ZEV sales in states outside of California that have adopted the ZEV program.

  2. Federal and state leaders should support key policies to spur sales of BEVs, PHEVs and FCVs, including:

    1. Extend and increase federal, state and local rebates and tax credits designed to support ZEV deployment and make ZEVs accessible to people of all income levels.

    2. Promote non-monetary incentives such as access to preferred parking and access to highway “carpool” lanes for ZEV technologies.

    3. Support public and private investment, including utility programs, to build and expand vehicle charging and fueling infrastructure for workplaces, public spaces and residences, including multi-unit dwellings.

    4. Support programs to increase zero emission technologies across the transportation sector as a whole, including for buses, trucks, and other heavy-duty vehicles and equipment.

    5. Ensure that the cleanest available technologies benefit all communities, including disadvantaged communities and those most impacted by pollution today.

  3. The US Environmental Protection Agency and states must implement the federal Clean Power Plan and strengthen state-level renewable energy goals and programs to shift ZEV power sources from fossil fuels to non-combustion electricity generation as quickly as possible.

Lung Association chapters working in the ZEV states worked together with the American Lung Association in California in producing the report. Lung Association charters that collaborated include: the American Lung Association in California, the American Lung Association of the Northeast, the American Lung Association of the Mountain Pacific, and the American Lung Association of the Mid-Atlantic. This report builds on past research published in the American Lung Association in California’s “The Road to Clean Air” series.


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Now that we know air pollution causes millions of premature deaths every year and that most of it is caused by burning hydro carbon fuels like biomass, coal, gas, and oil we need to let the power industry and the auto industry know that they have to stop making machines that operate on such fuels. By 2030 the combustion engine should be outlawed globally on all new car production and no more power plants should be build that burns hydrocarbons. On demand power plants should run on hydrogen made from renewable energy or operate on heat from heat sinks maintained from renewable energy.

It is going to take longer to fix air pollution from aviation and shipping but they can be replaced by a new a global hyper loop network that will be electric and much faster than both airplanes and ships in particular. For shipping the hyper loop will be submerged to avoid bad surface weather. For flexibility short distance ships and air travel could be electrified using batteries.

Dr. Strange Love

Let us Fix this. We will Outlaw long distance power transmission from Non-Renewable power sources . All 10 ZEV CARB states must immediately implement a development plan to build Power generation using the latest CHP/etc technology using a Hub and Spoke transmission model. The center of Los Angeles, San Francisco, .... will now have Non-Renweable power/heat generation stations centrally located. The law will state that it is illegal to transmit Dirty Power more than 5 miles from the Hub.

Electric Vehicles will be prohibited from Charging from Non-Renewable sources.

There will be No more Talk of ZEV, Dirty Air, Dirty anything if ZEV states continue the Purchase of power from 100s of miles away. Hypocritical diatribe will be outlawed from now on.


The 20th century will be known as the era when humans were immersed in petrochemical residues.


The potential savings in health care could (easily) finance the installation of early networks of: (1) 20,000+ ultra quick battery charge facilities and (2) 2,000+ H2 stations to accelerate the switch to BEVs and FCEVs.

It would be a real win-win-win solution giving less GHG/pollution and better health while creating more jobs at the same time. It could be a major boast for the economy.

Are we smart enough to do it?

Adding more REs (with storage) is also essential and should be duly considered to gradually close all actual CPPs and NGPPs.

Dr. Strange Love

We must Act. No more Talk. I think if any State/Province will allow Dirty Power and Dirty Vehicles of any kind, then "Cross State/Province Transmission or Vehicular Traffic" must be outlawed.

Dirty Energy Use to generate Electricity, Heat or Move Objects on the Ground must only allowed within the "Confines" of the City/State/Province. This way the Hypocrites will Breath/Consume their Own Waste.

I am tired of Hypocrisy. I am tired of CARB. I am tired of Studies Adnauseum. My gut will hurt until it ends.


Send this plan to Hillary. She can do clean energy and address healthcare together. And she might even get some republicans to buy into a clean energy plan (as long as she does not use the term "global warming."

Dr. Strange Love

It is always "Not in my Backyard" or "I can't see it from my House (also applies to sub-par workmanship)". I am tired of it.

JMartin. I like your proposal. We should also add this to the List of potential "Topic" or "Topicalities" for High School and College Debate forums for next year -- "Global/National Plan to Restrict the Cross-Region Transport of Dirty Energy (Keep the Waste in your Own Back-Yard)".


Stop spreading pollution and charging a lot of money for gasoline. Build my low cost air pressure hybrid car that i said to build 3 weeks ago. Easilly over 200 mpg with a gallon of gas at 1.25$. Also make this car compatible with e85 with ethanol made from co2 at 60 centd a gallon. Install this system in electrical power plant, instead of coal, nat gas, nuclear, biomass, windmills, solar, storage batteries, hydro-electric and sell this electricity at 4 cents kw/h. Elect trump to cut subsidies toward anything energy related.

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