Scientists from the University of Birmingham launched a major research project to investigate how “clean cold” could help to achieve almost all of the United Nations’ (UN) global Sustainable Development Goals. The 17 Global Goals include abolishing poverty and hunger; providing good healthcare and education; raising peoples’ quality of life; and cleaning up the environment, while promoting economic growth.
Clean cooling technologies, which can support environmentally sustainable cold chains, include Dearman’s zero-emission transport refrigeration system (earlier post); solar-driven cooling for pack-houses; and even small transportable ammonia-water absorption refrigeration which can be used to transport medicine.
|The Dearman Engine operates by the vaporization and expansion of cryogenic fluids—specifically, liquid nitrogen. Ambient or low grade waste heat is used as an energy source with the cryogen providing both the working fluid and heat sink. The Dearman Engine process involves the heat being introduced to the cryogenic fluid through direct contact heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid (HEF) inside the engine.|
|The Dearman Engine can be used to produce clean cold and power for a range of applications across transport, logistics and the built environment.|
|The most advanced current application of Dearman technology is as a zero emission transport refrigeration system designed and developed in conjunction with Hubbard Products as a sustainable alternative to the diesel driven units that conventionally keep refrigerated trucks cold. The system is currently on trial with Sainsbury’s, delivering food across London, where it is already having a positive impact on air quality.|
Professor Toby Peters and colleagues at the Birmingham Energy Institute aim to work with partners in countries where demand for clean cold is soaring, such as India and China. They will develop strategies using novel low-carbon and zero-emission technologies and new policy approaches. The roadmaps they produce could provide a global template to help meet the UN targets, as demand for cooling booms in fast growing economies—largely driven by urbanisation and emergence of an Asian Pacific middle class—predicted to rise to 3 billion by 2030.
The nine-month project’s launch report highlights many global concerns related to cooling, including:
The lack of adequate “cold chains” of refrigerated warehousing and transport causes two million vaccine preventable deaths each year, and the waste of 200 million tonnes of food;
Food wastage occupies a land area almost twice the size of Australia and consumes 250 km3 of water per year—three times the volume of Lake Geneva. It also accounts for 3.3 billion tonnes of CO2, making it the third biggest emitter after the US and China;
Conventional refrigeration and air conditioning cause 10% of global CO2 emissions—three times that attributed to aviation and shipping combined;
The global stock of room air conditioners will rise by an additional 700 million by 2030, and 1.6 billion by 2050; and
By the end of the century, global air conditioning will consume the equivalent of half the electricity consumed worldwide for all purposes in 2010.
Cooling is a huge problem faced by India, China and other fast-growing economies. It is all too often overlooked, but without it, supplies of food, medicine and even data break down; life in many parts of the world would be scarcely tolerable without air conditioning.
The University of Birmingham is a world-leader in clean cold’ expertise. We look forward to working with experts around the globe to tackle the challenge of supporting growing populations without causing environmental or societal damage. A huge research effort is now under way into how to realize the Global Goals and many linkages, such as economic growth and pollution are well understood. It is now becoming clear that cooling will be critical to achieving almost all the UN’s Global Goals.—Professor Peters
The report highlights that, as the world’s population heads to 9 billion by mid-century—increasing projected food demand by 60%—we will need far more cooling to conserve food, water and other resources; tackle poverty, hunger, health and climate change; and underpin growth and development.
It will be vital that any new cold chain infrastructure should be clean. Diesel-powered transport refrigeration units, for example, emit not only high levels of CO2 but also huge amounts of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM).
Clean cold is, therefore, central to achieving the Global Goals. If food wastage could be halved through the development of clean cold chains and other measures, each year it would:
Save enough food to feed an additional 1 billion people;
Reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 1.5 Gt CO2—more than Japan currently emits;
Conserve twice as much water as is consumed by all the homes in the US;
Avoid a massive increase in NOx and PM emissions from refrigerated transport, as the global fleet potentially quadruples in volume.