## Fisker files patents on solid-state battery technology; anticipating automotive-ready from 2023

##### 13 November 2017

Fisker’s scientists, including a co-founder of solid-state battery start-up Sakti3 (acquired by Dyson, earlier post), filed patents this week (under a non-publication request) on flexible, superior energy density solid-state batteries. The patent includes claims over novel materials and manufacturing processes that are critical in achieving the required energy density, power and cost targets required for the widespread use of electric vehicles.

Fisker’s solid-state batteries will feature three-dimensional electrodes with 2.5 times the energy density of lithium-ion batteries. Fisker claims that this technology will enable ranges of more than 500 miles on a single charge and charging times as low as one minute—faster than filling up a gas tank. Fisker anticipates the technology to be automotive production grade ready from 2023 onwards.

This breakthrough marks the beginning of a new era in solid-state materials and manufacturing technologies. We are addressing all of the hurdles that solid-state batteries have encountered on the path to commercialization, such as performance in cold temperatures; the use of low cost and scalable manufacturing methods; and the ability to form bulk solid-state electrodes with significant thickness and high active material loadings. We are excited to build on this foundation and move the needle in energy storage.

—Dr. Fabio Albano, VP of battery systems at Fisker Inc.

 Fisker solid-state technology is capable of constructing bulk three-dimensional solid-state electrodes with 25 times more surface area than flat thin-film solid state electrodes and extremely high electronic and ionic conductivities, thereby enabling fast charging and cold temperature operation. Click to enlarge.

Current limitations in solid-state technology include low electrode current density, limited temperature ranges, limited materials availability, high costs and non-scalable manufacturing processes. Early results show that Fisker’s solid-state technology enables the construction of bulk three-dimensional solid-state electrodes with 25 times more surface area than flat thin-film solid-state electrodes and extremely high electronic and ionic conductivities—enabling fast charging and cold temperature operation.

As a result, Fisker’s battery delivers 2.5 times the energy density of typical lithium-ion batteries, with the potential of costing one third of the 2020 projected price of those batteries due to advances in materials and manufacturing.

Several failure modes affect solid-state batteries, including low power and low rate capability due to high contact resistance and low ionic mobility in the layered electrode structures.

Delamination issues due to volume changes and residual stresses during charge/discharge processes; dendrite penetration and stability vs. metallic lithium electrodes; and low ionic diffusion, particularly in low temperature climate due to solid-state material limitations, are also roadblocks. With the newly announced technology, Fisker says that its scientists are addressing these technical bottlenecks.

Fisker’s flexible solid-state electrode construction will enable batteries with versatile voltage and form factors. They may be wound in cylindrical cells with higher voltage output, allowing usage of current tooling and machinery for battery packs—in addition to lesser cell-to-cell connections, thermal management and safety requirements. This further reduces battery system costs.

Fisker anticipates the technology may be ready for automotive applications post 2023. Such long lead times are due to the lack of supply chains with particular raw materials and appropriate manufacturing tools, as well as established quality procedures for materials repeatability.

Fisker says it is in active discussions with various industrial groups around potential non-automotive partnerships, with the possibility of battery applications that may be commercialized much earlier than 2023.

The 2018 launch of the Fisker EMotion luxury electric vehicle at the Consumer Electronics Show will showcase a proprietary battery module with advanced thermal management using 21700 NCM cells from LG Chem. The company has been simultaneously working on proprietary technology that will enable charging for a 127-mile range in nine minutes. Fisker’s solid-state battery and extreme fast charging technologies will also be on full display at the vehicle’s launch at CES.

Should I wait to exchange one of our HEVs for a long range (500+ KM) all weather BEV with those new greatly improved solid states batteries, rechargeable in less than 5 minutes at local 400+ KW public charging facilities?

Those are many roadblocks listed there and then the quote: "Fisker says that its scientists are addressing these technical bottlenecks"

To me this reads like they haven't solved those problems. There are many players in the solid-state battery, Dyson/Sakti3, Goodenough team, Toyota, Koreans... I wonder who will come up with the first production line, my bet is on Toyota.

@HarveyD Just buy w/e floats your boat for the mean time as the pricing of 1st gen of any tech is usually over priced to recoup the R&D, patents, and licensing. Once the patents expire things become cheaper for everyone just as the Prius hybrid patents expired leading to every manufacturer to offer their own Prius style CVT/MG hybrid variants.

IMO, purchase one of those next gen hybrids / EV's when they go off-lease just as many did when the Chevrolet Volt for a steal of a deal. Typically $10K -$15K savings vs new then also factor in do you even pay enough taxes to honestly offset the tax credit on top of the vastly higher insurance / property tax costs of a new vehicle.

As to the tech of charging a 500 mile range vehicle I'm wary of the vast improvements needed to support such high KVA demand. Using the Tesla Model 3 (long range model) having a 74 kilowatt hr battery pack with a range of 310 miles = 238.7 watts per mile. So 238.7 x 500 = 119KW battery which a hypothetical 50% SOC to 100% in 1 minute would require 60 kilowatt hours of electicity done within 1 minute. Meaning 60KW x 60 minutes = 3.580 megawatts / min worth of energy to fill up a 60 kilowatt hour capacity in one minute. Even if it's 75% to 100% thats still 1.79 megawatts / min. So shouldn't we be asking the power providers how much it will cost to handle spurattic massive energy demand spikes without causing brownouts which could damage electronic equipment?

Transferring the equivalent of 100 to 120 kWh (for 500+ Km range) in a battery pack in 5 minutes may be something that no current charging facilities can do. Doing the same thing in one (1) minute is much more demanding and is not for tomorrow.

A practical/possible way of doing it would be to temporary split the battery pack into 3 separate packs and use 3 (400+ KW) chargers.

"with 2.5 times the energy density" Oh shove it.

When you're ready to announce real specs, call us.

- Wh/kg
- Wh/l
- /kWh
- kW/kg
- operating temp
- cycle life
- etc, etc, etc

....FFS, ANYTHING that's a REAL number.

I'm so sick of marketing releases.

DaveD:
This is a patent holder looking for investment money. If they really had something viable all they need do is dial "1-800 Tesla" and if it can passes scrutiny,...Hello! Yacht Club!

With fast charging and cheaper batteries the only real solution to fast charge them is to have batteries in the charging station. Otherwise forget it, 350 kW will be max for a very long time and also good enough for most users. I mean 1 minute, 5 minutes or 10 minutes, not a big deal.

They have filed patents. That is the key thing. So they will try to extract money from these by either trolling other companies, or pumping the IP value of the company for a trade sale or another round of share sales.
@Lad has said the same thing.
Predicting anything about batteries 6 years out is a fools game (or believing anyone else's predictions is). (As DaveD says).
Meanwhile, they are planning to use "21700 NCM cells from LG Chem" which is perfectly sensible.

Vendedores de humo profesionales. Si, han presentado patente pero que se dejen de historias y ofrezcan datos reales. Pero vaya si dicen que sus cientificos están tratando de resolver los cuellos de botella es que realmente no tienen nada de nada.....Y más triste si cabe su coche va a montar celdas 21700 de LG es decir de otra compañía. ¿A que estais jugando, a quien vais a engañar?. Me apuesto una mariscada aquí en Valencia "España" que los primeros en comercializar celdas de estado solido seran los de Toyota no estos vendehumos de 3a regional de Fischer.

having a 74 kilowatt hr battery pack with a range of 310 miles = 238.7 watts per mile. So 238.7 x 500 = 119KW battery

@Engineer-Poet I'll openly concede it was an error on that specific portion but the math on all other portions is proper. I should have honestly listed it in joules yet I wanted it more easily digestible by the common man.

ABB is already installing 450 KW charging facilities in EU. That technology will cross the A-ocean by 2020/2022 or so.

Limited by batteries technology, future (2025+) charging facilities could recharge most BEVs in about 10 minutes.

This is an application, NOT a patent grant.

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