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Study concludes cycling is the urban transport mode associated with the greatest health benefits

A new study led by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), a center supported by the la Caixa Banking Foundation, has concluded that cycling is the mode of transport associated with the greatest health benefits: better self-perceived general health, better mental health and fewer feelings of loneliness.

The study formed part of the EU funded PASTA (Physical Activity Through Sustainable Transport Approaches) project and was carried out in seven European cities: Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Örebro, Rome, Vienna and Zurich.

A baseline questionnaire was completed by more than 8,800 people, 3,500 of whom also completed a final survey, on transport and health that included questions about what transport modes they used, how often they used the different transport modes, and how they perceived their general health.

The mental-health section of the survey focused on the four major dimensions of mental health (anxiety, depression, loss of emotional control, and psychological well-being), vitality (energy level and fatigue) and perceived stress. The survey also asked about participants’ social relations, including questions about loneliness and contact with friends and/or family.

The transport modes assessed in the study were car, motorbike, public transport, bicycle, electric bicycle and walking. The effects of these transport modes were analysed using both single- and multiple-mode models.

The findings, published in Environment International, show that cycling yielded the best results in every analysis. Bicycles were associated with better self-perceived general health, better mental health, greater vitality, lower self-perceived stress and fewer feelings of loneliness. The second most beneficial transport mode, walking, was associated with good self-perceived general health, greater vitality, and more contact with friends and/or family.

Previous studies have either analysed transport modes in isolation or compared various transport modes to each other. Ours is the first study to associate the use of multiple urban transport modes with health effects such as mental health and social contact. This approach allowed us to analyze the effects more realistically, since today’s city dwellers tend to use more than one mode of transport. It also allowed us to highlight the positive effect of walking, which in previous studies was not very conclusive.

—Ione Ávila Palencia, ISGlobal researcher and lead author

The study’s conclusions regarding transport modes other than cycling and walking were not entirely conclusive.

Driving and public-transport use were associated with poor self-perceived general health when the transport modes were analyzed separately, but this effect disappeared in the multiple-mode analyses.

—Ione Ávila Palencia

Cars were also associated with fewer feelings of loneliness in all of the analyses.

The findings were similar in all of the cities we studied. This suggests that active transport—especially cycling—should be encouraged in order to improve health and increase social interaction.

—Ione Ávila Palencia

Ávila Palencia added that the percentage of people who cycle “remains low in all European cities, except in countries like the Netherlands and Denmark, which means that there is plenty of room to increase bicycle use.”

Other studies conducted as part of the PASTA Project have also highlighted the health benefits of cycling. One study found that cyclists have a lower body mass index than non-cyclists and another suggested that as many as 10,000 deaths could be prevented by expanding cycling networks in European cities.


  • Ione Avila-Palencia, Luc Int Panis, Evi Dons, Mailin Gaupp-Berghausen, Elisabeth Raser, Thomas Götschi, Regine Gerike, Christian Brand, Audrey de Nazelle, Juan Pablo Orjuela, Esther Anaya-Boig, Erik Stigell, Sonja Kahlmeier, Francesco Iacorossi, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen (2018) “The effects of transport mode use on self-perceived health, mental health, and social contact measures: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.” Environment International doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.08.002



And people (girl and boys) in Holland are taller than us and their neighbours.


Unfortunately I don't have the luxury of living close to work because of the huge difference in housing costs. So I commute 35 miles instead. Hence , I tactically travel in early to beat the traffic and go for a nice 7-mile walk along a canal and through parkland. It's a nice way to start a day and beats doubling my commuting time sitting in rush hour traffic. I feel fit too!

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