Researchers in New Zealand have shown that investing in cycle lanes and walkways encourages people to drive less and cuts carbon emissions. The researchers from the University of Otago, Wellington and Victoria University studied the impact of new cycling and walking paths built in New Plymouth and Hastings in 2011.
In the three years after the development of the new infrastructure, they found there was a reduction of 1.6% in vehicle kilometers travelled and an associated 1% drop in carbon emissions.
It is the first study internationally to demonstrate that investing in cycle paths and walkways leads to a reduction in emissions.
Co-author Dr Caroline Shaw, a senior lecturer at the University of Otago, Wellington’s Department of Public Health, says the one percent reduction in carbon emissions is likely to be a conservative estimate, as shorter car trips—those most likely to be replaced by walking or cycling—typically had higher per kilometer emissions.
If the same level of investment was made across the country, it could reduce the country’s carbon dioxide emissions by at least 0.23 million tonnes over three years, the researchers say.
Building new cycle paths and walkways also appeared to reduce car ownership in the two cities. New Zealand has a high rate of light vehicles per capita, with 77 cars per 100 people, second only to the United States.
The researchers used a variety of methods to collect information on car usage, conducting face-to-face interviews with householders, analyzing odometer readings from licensing data and reviewing details on car ownership from the New Zealand Household Travel Survey.
The data from New Plymouth and Hastings were compared with information from Whanganui and Masterton—two cities which received no additional government funding for cycle ways or walking paths.
Dr Shaw says the research clearly demonstrates that people are prepared to substitute cycling and walking for car journeys.
Caroline Shaw, Edward Randal, Michael Keall, Alistair Woodward (2018) “Health consequences of transport patterns in New Zealand’s largest cities” NZMJ Vol 131 Nº 1472