NVIDIA showcases DRIVE Localization platform; localizing AVs within centimeters to HD maps worldwide
Harley-Davidson using Samsung SDI battery for LiveWire

NUS study finds correlation between PM2.5 pollution and employee productivity

A study by researchers from the National University of Singapore Department of Economics (NUS Economics) has found a correlation between pollution and productivity of employees. The researchers, led by Associate Professor Alberto Salvo, gathered information from various factories in China and discovered that exposure to air pollution over several weeks can reduce employee productivity.

The study, the first of its kind to examine prolonged exposure to air pollution, was published in the American Economic Journal: Applied Economics.

Although most people are familiar with the negative impact of air pollution on health, as economists the team was interested in looking for other socioeconomic outcomes, said Assoc Prof Salvo.

Our aim with this research was to broaden the understanding of air pollution in ways that have not been explored. We typically think that firms benefit from lax pollution regulations by saving on emission control equipment and the like; here we document an adverse effect on the productivity of the workforce.

—Alberto Salvo

The team, which included Associate Professor Liu Haoming and post-doctoral fellow Dr He Jiaxiu, first interviewed managers at one dozen firms in four separate provinces before obtaining access to data in two textile mills: one in Henan and one in Jiangsu.

As the workers in the textile mills were paid according to each piece of fabric they made, the daily records of productivity for workers on each shift could be examined. The severity of pollution was determined by measuring how many fine particles less than 2.5 micrometres in diameter (PM2.5) were present in the air.

Comparing both values, they found that while daily fluctuations in pollution did not immediately affect workers’ productivity, prolonged exposure of up to 30 days led to a definite drop in output.

We found that an increase in PM2.5 by 10 micrograms per cubic meter sustained over 25 days reduces daily output by 1 percent, harming firms and workers. The effects are subtle but highly significant.

—Liu Haoming

The results obtained from this study could be applied to Singapore, said the researchers, even though very high levels of PM2.5 due to transboundary pollution have not been frequent.

While the study did not investigate the mechanisms behind the inverse relationship between pollution and productivity, Assoc Prof Liu said that high levels of particles are visible and might affect an individual’s wellbeing in a multitude of ways.


  • He, Jiaxiu, Haoming Liu, and Alberto Salvo (2019) “Severe Air Pollution and Labor Productivity: Evidence from Industrial Towns in China.” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 11 (1): 173-201 doi: 10.1257/app.20170286



Yup.. i live in salt lake city, Utah.. pollution central.. can't even think when we're in the red.. glad to see that there's at least some acknowledgement of the issue.

Olman Grand

I didn't know that it's that serious

The comments to this entry are closed.