Ford Europe reveals Transit Smart Energy Concept; maximizing EV efficiency and range
ZF introduces coPILOT system for next-gen ADAS powered by ZF ProAI and NVIDIA DRIVE; “Level 2+” system

Study suggests some filtering of particulates from diesel exhaust may worsen allergy-induced lung impairment due to increase in NO2

Air pollution from diesel engines may worsen allergy-induced lung impairment more when tiny particles are filtered from the exhaust than when they are not, according to new research published online in the American Thoracic Society’s American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

This counter-intuitive result may be due to the fact that some particle-depletion technologies, including the one used by the researchers, increase the amount of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the exhaust. NO2, which is subject to national air quality standards, has been shown to reduce lung function and may be a cause of asthma in children.

In “Particle Depletion Does Not Remediate Acute Effects of Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Allergen,” Denise J. Wooding, MSc, and co-authors report on a randomized, controlled study of 14 non-smoking adults who were sensitive to at least one of three common allergens.

We previously demonstrated that diesel exhaust augmented allergic responses as well as airflow declines in those genetically susceptible, but we wondered if removing particles from the exhaust would lessen these effects.

—senior study author Chris Carlsten, MD, MPH, professor, head of respiratory medicine and Canada Research Chair in Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease at the University of British Columbia

In this cross-over study, all 14 participants at various times were exposed in a laboratory to air with just the allergen, the allergen plus diesel exhaust and the allergen plus filtered diesel exhaust. They all also breathed air with no diesel exhaust or allergen, which served as the control.

After each exposure, the participants underwent a commonly used test called methacholine challenge to determine how a patient responds to an inhaled allergen. Neither they nor those conducting the study were aware of which exposure they had undergone before being tested.

The researchers also measured numbers of white blood cells, which marshal the body’s immune response but can “overreact” to allergens, causing breathing problems.

The study found:

  • The particle-depleted diesel exhaust produced by HEPA filtration and electrostatic precipitation generated higher NO2 levels than unfiltered diesel exhaust.

  • Exposure to filtered diesel exhaust and allergen impaired the amount of air participants could forcibly exhale in one second (FEV1) more than allergen alone and more than unfiltered diesel exhaust and allergen.

  • Increasing levels of white blood cells were associated with declining FEV1 scores, suggesting that white blood cells “play a meaningful role in reducing lung function in the context of these exposures.”

  • The effects of filtered diesel exhaust on lung function and on white blood cells were more pronounced in those participants who were genetically susceptible to oxidative stress, which occurs when there is an imbalance of free radicals and antioxidants in the body.

The take-home message is that technologies that remove particulate matter from diesel exhaust cannot be simply assumed to be beneficial to health, especially in susceptible populations.

—Chris Carlsten

Comments

Carl

This study is obsolete because modern diesels with SCR generally have LOWER NO2 emissions than unfiltered diesels in spite of much higher NO2:NOx ratios from DPF:

https://ww3.arb.ca.gov/research/seminars/kirchstetter/kirchstetter.htm#CARBscience

Peter_XX

@Carl,
Yeah, it is stupid that they do not carry out their research on modern vehicles. They seem to want to find something negative in spite of that the current trend actually is the opposite. Should we remove DPFs from in-use cars? I do not think so. Instead, we should put GPFs on (future) gasoline cars. Most manufacturers in the EU actually do that already. For improved air quality and to reduce health effects.

Peugeot introduced the first passenger car with DPF in 2000. It was certified to Euro 3. It is a long, long time ago. These cars will not come back and bite us.

HarveyD

A recent study published in The Lancet Planetary Health confirmed a major increase (up to 450/100,000 or 170,000 new cases per year) in Asthma cases in children in Canada. Toronto is one of the worst city in the world with 550/100,000 new cases but the Ontario provincial government is fighting the introduction of the new Federal Carbon Tax of $20/Tonne?

Extreme Right politicians can be very damaging?

Peter_XX

@HarveyD
During the more than 30 years I have been working in this field, vehicle emissions and air quality has improved every year. Yet, the number of people dying from air pollution increase every year. What will happen when the percentage of people who die from air pollution reach more than 100%? Then, we will all die... immediately... or...

A group of German pulmonary researchers noted recently that if you apply the same factors for death rate on smokers as we have for population, in relation to the exposure, the smokers would not live more than 2 months. That is obviously not the case and consequently, there must be something fundamentally wrong in these calculations. A debate has now started in Germany. This does not prevent, however, that we now again see yet another ill-founded study published.

Verify your Comment

Previewing your Comment

This is only a preview. Your comment has not yet been posted.

Working...
Your comment could not be posted. Error type:
Your comment has been posted. Post another comment

The letters and numbers you entered did not match the image. Please try again.

As a final step before posting your comment, enter the letters and numbers you see in the image below. This prevents automated programs from posting comments.

Having trouble reading this image? View an alternate.

Working...

Post a comment

Your Information

(Name is required. Email address will not be displayed with the comment.)