Despite global passenger EV sales increasing by just 8% in 2019, global deployment of nickel in the batteries of these EVs increased by a hefty 39% year-over-year, translating to a global sales-weighted average of 12.9 kilograms of nickel per EV, according to Adamas Intelligence.
In Australia, however the sales-weighted average nickel use per EV in 2019 clocked in at a market-leading 28.1 kilograms owing to the high proportion of long-range battery electric vehicles with nickel-rich batteries sold there, including the Tesla Model 3, Model S and Model X, as well as the Hyundai Kona EV, among others.
In second place was the Netherlands with 27.0 kilograms of nickel deployed per EV sold, followed by Switzerland, Norway, Canada and Ireland—all averaging above 20.0 kilograms per EV in 2019.
At the other end of the range, India, Israel and Japan rounded off the bottom three among the world’s top 25 electric vehicle markets with 0.8 kilograms, 2.2 kilograms and 4.6 kilograms of nickel deployed per EV, respectively.
The EV markets of these three countries are dominated by sales of hybrid electric vehicles, which have much smaller batteries than BEVs, translating to substantially lower battery metals use per EV.