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HHI, Hyundai Glovis, Liberian Registry and KR develop 20,000 m3 liquefied hydrogen carrier

Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI) Group, Hyundai Glovis, the Liberian Registry, the Korean Register and their partners have successfully developed the world’s first Large Size and commercially viable liquified hydrogen carrier.

HHI Group’s Korea Shipbuilding & Offshore Engineering (KSOE) and Hyundai Mipo Dockyard (HMD) have received the necessary Approval in Principle (AIP) for a 20,000 m3 class liquefied hydrogen carrier from the Liberian Registry as flag State and Korean Register as Class Society. This ship design is the world’s first large size liquefied hydrogen carrier.

The key elements of this joint industry project (JIP) are the KSOE-developed liquefied hydrogen cargo treatment system and a hydrogen boil-off gas (BOG) treatment system using fuel cells. HMD advanced the basic design of the ship. Hyundai Glovis and G-Marine Service analyzed the economics and safety of liquefied hydrogen during storage and transportation.

According to the Hydrogen, Scailing Up report released in 2017 by the Hydrogen Council, the global hydrogen market is expected to grow to $2.5 trillion by 2050, accounting for 18% of the total energy demand. Accordingly, the Korean government also announced the “Road Map for Activating the Hydrogen Economy” last year, and is spurring the revitalization of the hydrogen economy in various industries such as shipbuilding, automobiles and batteries.

This ship design is characterized by the use of a double-structured vacuum insulated tank to improve insulation and minimize hydrogen BOG generated during operation. In addition, by adopting an electric propulsion system, hydrogen BOG can be used as fuel for fuel cells in the future.

In order to transport a large amount of hydrogen by ship, a liquefaction process that reduces the volume to 1/800 and increases stability is essential. Since hydrogen liquefies at a cryogenic temperature of -253°C, which is lower than LNG that liquefies at -163°C, a liquefied hydrogen carrier needs advanced cryogenic technology to stably preserve it.



Roger Pham

@Dursun Sakarya,
The abstract of that paper is as followed:
" In this paper the energy needs of a hydrogen economy are quantified. Only 20%-25% of the source energy needed to synthesized hydrogen from natural compounds can be recovered for end use by efficient fuel cells. "
Reply: Well, if the end result of H2 utilization is heat, or combined heat and power, then we can pretty much recover almost 100% of the input energy, minus the 15% loss in the electrolysis process and may be 2% loss in pipeline transportation. This means that the H2 made in Springs and Falls will be used in Winters for heating and combined electricity and heating using the waste heat of the Fuel Cell (FC).
1.. You can charge your EV on a winter night using a home-based FC while the waste heat of the FC will keep you warm.
2.. Daytime solar energy is used to make H2 which will be used to make home electricity by the FC while the waste heat will make hot water for bathing, dish washing and laundry.
3.. Of course, batteries will be used for storage of electricity when waste heat is not required. For example, a Plug-in FCV will have 50-mile-range on battery for daily driving for 80-90% of total milefage, and only needing H2-FC for occasional long trips

"Because of the high energy losses within a hydrogen economy the synthetic energy carrier cannot compete with electricity. As the fundamental laws of physics cannot be chanced by research, politics or investments, a hydrogen economy will never make sense."
Reply: It is WRONG to use Hydrogen to compete with Electricity, either from the grid or from Battery, but Hydrogen is a great way to complement grid Electricity AND Battery Electricity whenever those 2 sources aren't available or aren't practical.
For example: Long-haul trucking and shipping can use Battery, but the weight of battery is too much and cuts down too much on payload capacity, thus Hydrogen will be used to maximize payload and maximize revenue.

Roger Pham

@Dursun Sakarya,
"Hydrogen infrastructure –the pillar of energy transition--The practical conversion of long-distance gas networks to hydrogen operation"

"RATP beginning tests of Solaris Urbino 12 hydrogen bus in Paris
23 October 2020"


As fundamental as the main law of thermodynamics itself is the fact that all the steel, necessary to support a H2 infrastructure, produces 1.7 tons of CO2 for every ton of steel produced; this pertains to the distribution of H2 just as well. When producing true "green H2" (not just green washing), the overall "well to wheels" efficiency is exasperatingly poor; high pressure storage leads to unaccountable losses.
The only way to implement a H2 infrastructure is to store that H2 as e.g. LNG and implement a FC that functions with LNG without resorting to the complicated method of a reformer to recoup the H2.
Additionally, employ this method only there where it is warranted that the unavoidable thermal losses are put to good use and not just wasted.
Any other application is just a continued waste of energy and financial resources and a continuation of irresponsible emissions.


Make the H2 where you use it, no pipes nor trucks.


Use the electricity right there were you generate it (solar or wind), buffer it with battery packs and it's 4x more efficient than H2.

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