Ford anticipates 40% of its global vehicle volume to be all-electric by 2030; spending to $30+B by 2025, IonBoost batteries
Chalmers study: ban on sales of fossil-fuel cars greatly reduces lifecycle GHG mainly due to tailpipe emissions; risk of carbon leakage in manufacturing

PEUGEOT e-EXPERT Hydrogen now in series production

PEUGEOT has become one of the first manufacturers to offer in series production, from 2021 onwards in the compact utility van segment, an electric version powered by a hydrogen fuel cell in addition to its battery-electric version.

PEUGEOT_EXPERT_2105STYP003

The new PEUGEOT e-EXPERT Hydrogen includes a new mid-power plug-in hydrogen fuel cell electric system, specific to STELLANTIS. Based on the EMP2 (Efficient Modular Platform), the new PEUGEOT e-EXPERT Hydrogen is a fully electric vehicle, combining two on-board sources of electrical energy. The vehicle includes:

  • A hydrogen fuel cell, located in the engine compartment at the front of the vehicle, which supplies electricity to the electric engine by recombining the hydrogen contained in the tank with oxygen from the air. It emits only water vapor through the exhaust pipe.

  • A permanent magnet electric motor with a maximum power of 100 KW, delivering 260 N·m of maximum torque. Located on the front axle, this electric drive train is similar to that of the PEUGEOT e-EXPERT (battery-electric model), which stands out in particular with a gearbox adapted to the loading constraints inherent to the use of commercial vehicles.

  • A high-voltage lithium-ion battery, located under the cab seats, with a capacity of 10.5 kWh and a power of 90 kW.

  • A three-phase on-board charger of 11 kW, located in the engine compartment.

  • A tank system consisting of 3 hydrogen storage tanks located under the floor, with a total capacity of 4.4 kg at a pressure of 700 bar.

PEUGEOT_EXP_2021_001_FR

The new PEUGEOT e-EXPERT Hydrogen can fill up with hydrogen in 3 minutes for a range of more than 400 km in the WLTP homologation cycle (currently undergoing approval).

The different operating phases of the mid-power plug-in hydrogen fuel cell electric system are:

  • At start-up and at low speed, the high-voltage battery alone provides the electric engine with the power it needs for traction.

  • At steady speed the fuel cell supplies the energy directly to the electric motor.

  • During acceleration, overtaking or hill climbing the fuel cell and the high-voltage battery are combined to supply energy to the motor.

  • During braking and deceleration, the electric motor recharges the high-voltage battery.

The new PEUGEOT e-Expert Hydrogen offers 3 driving modes from the mode selector:

  • Eco (60 kW, 190 N·m): for better range

  • Normal (80 kW, 210 N·m): optimal for everyday use

  • Power (N·m) to optimize performance when carrying heavy loads.

Two braking modes are available, with suitable battery regeneration:

  • Moderate, for a similar feeling to a combustion engine vehicle

  • Increased (accessible via the "B" push button for “Brake” located on the gearbox control), for enhanced deceleration when the accelerator pedal is released

The high-voltage battery is guaranteed for 8 years or 160,000 km for at least 70% of its charge capacity.

The van features up to 6.1m³ load volume, up to 1100 kg payload, and up to 1000 kg towing capacity.

The new PEUGEOT e-EXPERT Hydrogen will first be offered to professional customers (direct sales), in France and Germany, from the end of 2021. It will be produced in France, in Valenciennes, and then transformed in the Stellantis competence center dedicated to hydrogen technology in Germany, in Rüsselsheim.

The compact van segment market represents more than 750,000 vehicles per year in Europe. The PEUGEOT Expert has increased its market share every year since its launch in 2016.

Comments

Davemart

This technology can help to reduce in the medium term the massive demand a transition to long range BEVs only, where the need for rapid increases in output is phenomenal, far, far greater than those required to go to a very high proportion of solar and wind in the grid;

https://www.greencarcongress.com/2019/06/20190624-uk.html

' The metal resource needed to make all cars and vans electric by 2050 and all sales to be purely battery-electric by 2035. To replace all UK-based vehicles today with electric vehicles (not including the LGV and HGV fleets), assuming they use the most resource-frugal next-generation NMC 811 batteries, would take 207,900 tonnes cobalt, 264,600 tonnes of lithium carbonate (LCE), at least 7,200 tonnes of neodymium and dysprosium, in addition to 2,362,500 tonnes copper.

This represents just under two times the total annual world cobalt production, nearly the entire world production of neodymium, three quarters the world’s lithium production and at least half of the world’s copper production during 2018. Even ensuring the annual supply of electric vehicles only, from 2035 as pledged, will require the UK to annually import the equivalent of the entire annual cobalt needs of European industry.

The worldwide impact: If this analysis is extrapolated to the currently projected estimate of two billion cars worldwide, based on 2018 figures, annual production would have to increase for neodymium and dysprosium by 70%, copper output would need to more than double and cobalt output would need to increase at least three and a half times for the entire period from now until 2050 to satisfy the demand.'

The level of demand is currently forcing materials prices higher for both renewables and batteries, and putting a real crimp in the story of ever falling costs

mahonj

Or you could use PHEVs or HEVs with 10 kWh or 2 kWh batteries and range extenders running on just petrol or diesel (or some biofuel) and keep it simple.
It isn't a perfect solution, but at least you might get it implemented.

gryf

Davemart,
Interesting post. Though, your comment the most resource-frugal next-generation NMC 811 batteries is not correct. Cobalt-free batteries are the most resource frugal and many are available and not only LiFePo (there are NMx, ORNL has NMFeAl, and Zinc Air).
Solid State batteries and recycling will reduce demand for Lithium Carbonate as well as new sources of supply from Bromine in Arkansas , Geothermal salts, and Ocean extraction.
In 2018 Honda hybrid motors started using magnets that do not contain dysprosium and terbium. Other automakers also have done this as well.
For some reason you left out Platinum Group Metals which have had resource issues for he past two decades. Check out this article: "Is automotive demand for platinum increasing or decreasing?"11Aug2020 (https://www.cmegroup.com/education/articles-and-reports/is-automotive-demand-for-platinum-increasing-or-decreasing.html#).
They make a real good point:
"The economic theory of substitution suggests that manufacturers will substitute a cheaper input for a more expensive one, up to a point where it is no longer economically logical to do so. That point can be price/cost driven, as rising demand for the initially cheaper alternative drives up prices of that input or related to the impact of substitution on the performance of the output product."

Davemart

@mahonj

PHEVs are not ZEV at point of use. For high mileage delivery vehicles that is important, and currently PHEVs have high emissions at the point when the engine switches on, although I would imagine that that can be engineered around.

Places like Germany and South Korea will have enough density of hydrogen stations to support FCEVs in many places soon.

Davemart

@gruyf

The report I quoted was from 2019, so the precise details are not current.

Nor did I personally analyse or quote any other documents, as in my view it highlights the issues with sufficient clarity.

For the platinum group metals as far as that pertains to FCEVs it appears that the loading in them will approach that in ICE catalytic converters soon enough that little if any additional resources are needed, even if PEMs remain the choice of fuel cells for cars and trucks.

I would agree that substitution and non magnetic engines etc will be used, and that there will be a huge expansion of capacity also.

But it takes time to build a mine and the logistic chain, and in my view the projected time lines for 100% long range BEVs are not realistic.

SJC

HTPEM with bio fuel

gryf

The PEUGEOT e-EXPERT Hydrogen Van looks like it will accomplish what Peugeot describes as an “answer to the expectations and needs of professional customers...".
It combines the 100 kW drive of the Stellantis Group with a 45 kW fuel cell from Symbio. This combination might also work with the larger Peugeot e-Boxer electric van maybe with the e-Boxer 37 kWh battery and a larger H2 tank for even greater range.
The Peugeot Boxer is built at the same plant as the Fiat Ducato, so maybe this could come to the USA as the Chrysler Ram ProMaster (which btw is already used by the USPS).

Davemart

@gryf

For the US I am very interested in this leasing system for converting truck to hybrids or pure hydrogen ICE, with the hydrogen also supplied at guaranteed cost:

https://fuelcellsworks.com/news/hydra-energy-secures-cad15-million-to-convert-existing-heavy-duty-trucks-to-run-on-green-hydrogen/

Although a partial and temporary solution, on the face of it it sounds like a no brainer to enable very large speedy reductions in emissions, and the roll out of hydrogen infrastructure.

If anyone has more info, please post!

Emphyrio

I was surprised to see Scania on the other hand have stopped fuel cell work and intend to focus on BEV trucks. So their 29 tonne truck has a 300 kWh battery and range of 150 miles - 0.5 miles per kWh. And going to 500 kWh or more in their 40 tonne trucks. 10 cars worth. Where do they think the lithium is going to come from? Meanwhile Oxis Energy are going bankrupt so their goes 16 years work on Lithium Sulphur which had reached a claimed 400 Wh/kg and no cobalt or nickel.



As for motors, there's no good reason not to use induction motors. That's what the EV1 used. Bill Moore made a very interesting observation in his book about what he saw when he tested the EV1 on the freeway.

SJC

Induction motors work just fine

Davemart

Emphyrio

Scania is part of the VAG group, whose boss has gone on a BEV only trip, to the dismay of some of those at sub brands like Audi

They are to my knowledge the only major manufacturer of trucks to try to avoid using hydrogen, which for heavy loads, long distances and fast charging/refueling is in a different class, as Daimler for instance notes on page 41 in this report:

https://www.daimler.com/dokumente/investoren/praesentationen/daimler-ir-presentation-daimler-truck-strategy-day-may-2021.pdf

When VAG gets a bee in their bonnet, they force compliance throughout the group, as they did with 'clean diesel' where the faking was due to inappropriate pressure on the subordinates, who if they could not make it, were forced to fake it, as no excuse was allowed for not hitting impossible targets.

gryf

SJC,
Mahle has an induction, magnet-free moto with an overall efficiency of 95%, previously only achieved by Formula E racing cars. Dispensing with magnets and therefore the use of rare earth elements.
So absolutely, Induction motors work just fine.

gryf

GCC, 10/30/2020:
TRATON and Hino will combine their unique strengths to develop electric vehicles including battery electric vehicles (BEV), fuel cell vehicles (FCV), and relevant components as well as creating common EV platforms including software and interfaces.
So Scania can just use the best fuel cell components from Toyota. Also, the Hyundai Xcient is the world’s first mass-produced, heavy-duty truck powered by hydrogen and delivered to Switzerland. Hyundai is using AKASOL battery packs, the same supplier for Daimler eCitaro buses. Looks like they expect to be a force in EU trucking.
For long range Class 8 trucks, rail, and heavy duty equipment FCEV looks like a good bet.

Davemart

@gryf

It looks like Traton are doubling down on BEV even for long range:

' TRATON, a subsidiary of Volkswagen AG, is one of the world's leading commercial vehicle manufacturers with its brands MAN, Scania, Volkswagen Caminhoes e Onibus and Rio.

“TRATON is setting a clear focus on electric trucks. This transition will not happen overnight. It will be gradual, sustainable, and in line with the required network expansion. If there is no charging infrastructure, it will not work,” said Matthias Grundler, CEO of TRATON SE.

The TRATON GROUP brands have already set concrete targets for 2025 and 2030: electric vehicles will make up around 10% of Scania’s European unit sales in 2025, with half of MAN’s new buses also equipped with an electric drive system by the same date. By 2030, every second vehicle sold by Scania will be powered electrically and at least 60% of MAN’s delivery trucks and 40% of its long-haul trucks will be zero-emission.

When it comes to alternative drives, TRATON’s main focus is on battery electric vehicles. Nevertheless, hydrogen technology may well come into its own in niches. Most of the time, pure electric trucks will outperform their hydrogen counterparts as the more cost-efficient and eco-friendly solution for trucks, especially long-haul trucks. “This is because compared to electric trucks powered by batteries alone, hydrogen trucks have one major drawback: just one quarter of the energy output is ultimately used to power the vehicle, with the other three quarters lost along the way from the energy source to the road. This is the other way around for electric trucks,” explained TRATON CEO Matthias Gründler.'

https://www.autocarpro.in/news-international/vw%E2%80%99s-traton-group-to-invest-16-billion-euros-in-electric-mobility-78779

SJC

Mahle is inductively coupled, Tesla is induction

Davemart

@SJC

For those of us not in the game your comment is somewhat gnomic!
Perhaps you would expand on what the difference is?

SJC

Read about both you'll see

gryf

The Tesla Model S uses a 3-phase AC induction motor. The Tesla Model 3 uses an Internal Permanent Magnet - Synchronous Reluctance Motor to improve efficiency.
In the Mahle motor "Power is beamed into the rotor wirelessly, through induction, by a coil carrying alternating current. This induces a current in the receiving electrode, inside the rotor, which energizes the copper windings there to produce an electromagnetic field." (https://spectrum.ieee.org/cars-that-think/transportation/advanced-cars/mahles-electric-motor-says-look-ma-no-contacts).
The Mahle rotor is DC so it can achieve 96%+ efficiency. There is a video that explains the "wireless power induction" here: (https://www.mahle.com/en/news-and-press/press-releases/mahle-develops-highly-efficient-magnet-free-electric-motor--82368).

Davemart

@SJC

You whine about EP being rude.

Stop being a total nause, if you still have the capability.

SJC

Dave, learn some manners or leave

Davemart

And you think that your comment is mannerly?

If you stop making arrogant and utterly uniformative posts, presumably only made to demonstrate how clever you are, then you would not be called out on them.

The comments to this entry are closed.