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ORNL team develops modeling tool to help plan timing and location of EV chargers along interstates

Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed a nationwide modeling tool to help infrastructure planners decide where and when to locate electric vehicle charging stations along interstate highways. The goal is to encourage the adoption of EVs for cross-country travel.

The free open-source software, called REVISE-II, takes into account EV growth forecasts, charging technology capabilities, intercity travel trends and driver demographics to help planners fill infrastructure gaps for charging facilities.

A paper on the modeling tool is published in the journal Applied Energy.

REVISE-II 2020-2025 png_0

REVISE-II 2020-2025 png_0

These maps illustrate an estimate of projected EV charging infrastructure buildout through 2025 and 2040, respectively, using the REVISE-II software tool. Credit: Fei Xie/ORNL, U.S. Dept. of Energy

The core model is an optimization model that considers spatial and temporal dimensions and models heterogeneous behaviors between travelers. The model also introduces the travelers’ inconvenience cost function by linking travelers’ acceptance of the charging infrastructure with exogenous technology and social factors. The inconvenience cost function simulates mode choice between BEVs and alternative modes by heterogenous travelers.

—Xie and Lin

By inputting various assumptions, planners can generate scenarios for future charging infrastructure requirements to encourage acceptance of EVs and accommodate growth as more EVs are adopted.


  • Fei Xie, Zhenhong Lin (2021) “Integrated US nationwide corridor charging infrastructure planning for mass electrification of inter-city trips,” Applied Energy, Volume 298, 117142 doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.117142


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