A new report from a team at Argonne National Laboratory examines the changing characteristics for light-duty plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) from 2010-2021, evaluating range, energy efficiency, costs, and performance.
The report estimates miles driven, electricity consumption, petroleum reduction, and greenhouse gas emissions attributable to electric vehicles. The report also explores vehicle manufacturing and battery production, considering supply chains from battery cells to assembly.
More than 2.1 million PEVs have been sold in the United States through December 2021, with 1.3 million of these all fully-electric battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and 800,000 plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) which have the capability of using gasoline.
Annual sales of PEVs in the US by year. From 2011 to 2021, annual PEV sales grew from fewer than 18,000 to more than 630,000, equivalent to an average year-over-year growth rate of 43%. Gohlke et al.
Sales shares of PEVs in the United States by manufacturer, 2011–2021. Gohlke et al.
The sales-weighted average range for BEVs reached 290 miles in 2021 and 28 miles for PHEVs. The authors estimate that electric vehicles have driven 68 billion miles on electricity since 2010, thereby reducing national gasoline consumption by 0.54% in 2021 and 2.5 billion gallons cumulatively through 2021.
In 2021, PEVs used 6.1 terawatt-hours of electricity to drive 19.1 billion miles, offsetting 700 million gallons of gasoline. The authors find that this fuel switching reduced consumer fuel costs by $1.3 billion in 2021.
Portion of key national metrics attributable to PEVs in the United States by year, 2010–2021. Gohlke et al.
Since 2010, 65% of PEVs sold in the United States have been assembled domestically, and more than 110 gigawatt-hours of lithium-ion batteries have been installed in vehicles to date.
Sankey flow diagram showing manufacturing location for cells, packs, and vehicles for PEVs sold in the United States from 2010 to 2021 (GWh). Gohlke et al.
Gohlke, David, Zhou, Yan, Wu, Xinyi, and Courtney, Calista. (2022) “Assessment of Light-Duty Plug-in Electric Vehicles in the United States, 2010 – 2021.” doi: 10.2172/1898424