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Argonne report on characteristics of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in US

A new report from a team at Argonne National Laboratory examines the changing characteristics for light-duty plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) from 2010-2021, evaluating range, energy efficiency, costs, and performance.

The report estimates miles driven, electricity consumption, petroleum reduction, and greenhouse gas emissions attributable to electric vehicles. The report also explores vehicle manufacturing and battery production, considering supply chains from battery cells to assembly.

More than 2.1 million PEVs have been sold in the United States through December 2021, with 1.3 million of these all fully-electric battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and 800,000 plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) which have the capability of using gasoline.


Annual sales of PEVs in the US by year. From 2011 to 2021, annual PEV sales grew from fewer than 18,000 to more than 630,000, equivalent to an average year-over-year growth rate of 43%. Gohlke et al.


Sales shares of PEVs in the United States by manufacturer, 2011–2021. Gohlke et al.

The sales-weighted average range for BEVs reached 290 miles in 2021 and 28 miles for PHEVs. The authors estimate that electric vehicles have driven 68 billion miles on electricity since 2010, thereby reducing national gasoline consumption by 0.54% in 2021 and 2.5 billion gallons cumulatively through 2021.

In 2021, PEVs used 6.1 terawatt-hours of electricity to drive 19.1 billion miles, offsetting 700 million gallons of gasoline. The authors find that this fuel switching reduced consumer fuel costs by $1.3 billion in 2021.


Portion of key national metrics attributable to PEVs in the United States by year, 2010–2021. Gohlke et al.

Since 2010, 65% of PEVs sold in the United States have been assembled domestically, and more than 110 gigawatt-hours of lithium-ion batteries have been installed in vehicles to date.


Sankey flow diagram showing manufacturing location for cells, packs, and vehicles for PEVs sold in the United States from 2010 to 2021 (GWh). Gohlke et al.


  • Gohlke, David, Zhou, Yan, Wu, Xinyi, and Courtney, Calista. (2022) “Assessment of Light-Duty Plug-in Electric Vehicles in the United States, 2010 – 2021.” doi: 10.2172/1898424



It would be interesting to see how the sticker price for the BEV/PHEVs compares with its ICE equivalent model over time, for several models, though I realize many models such as Tesla, never had an ICE originator; perhaps broken up into various LDV categories. Leads to questions about decreasing prices for components, economies of scale, etc.


Nice report! Much more than summarized here. Including: decrease in KWh/100miles over last 12y (about 16% for BEV fleet); $/mile average savings (~$.05/mile BEV, $0.04/mile PHEV); motor size/acceleration over the last 12y; avg BEV vehicle cost: growth in US battery capacity for vehicles; Announced US battery plant capacity; etc...


@Jer There is fig 16 comparing MSRP of light-duty vehicles vs BEVs over the last 9 years to 2021. ~30% increase for LDV vs ~60% for BEV.


"reducing national gasoline consumption by 0.54% in 2021"
Bit to go there.
They could probably have achieved a lot more by enforcing speed limits or "encouraging" people to slow down a little (or drive cars instead of SUVs).

@Matt, probably because the BEVs have much larger batteries than 9 years ago + they are resource constrained (for batteries) so this is keeping the raw material costs up.

It's not like making chips where you can make the line geometry smaller and smaller with each generation; you need large amounts of bulk materials for each battery, and the batteries are getting larger and larger (capacity and thus mass and materials).


Been waiting for batteries to get more energy dense, lighter, and less costly...hasn't happened yet; but, it will and then BEVs will be at parity with the ICE models.


The Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has released a report on the characteristics of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in the United States. The report examines the current and future needs for charging infrastructure, including charging stations and fast-charging infrastructure, as well as the role of power electronics in electric vehicle charging." It is also good to read now.The increasing deployment of plug-in electric vehicles presents new challenges to the achievement of their full potential," said Professor at ANL. "Our research will help ensure that these vehicles can be charged efficiently enough to make them more attractive than conventional vehicles."

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