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DOE awarding $16M to five projects to boost domestic capabilities in solid-state and flow battery manufacturing

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) will award a total of $16 million to five projects to advance domestic capabilities in solid-state and flow battery manufacturing. Each project represents a collaborative effort between DOE National Laboratories and industry partners to expedite the transition from innovation to battery manufacturing scale-up and commercialization.

Solid-state lithium batteries (SSBs) offer an energy-dense and safer substitute to the traditional lithium-ion batteries prevalent in electric vehicles (EV) and various portable devices. With the potential to amplify the EV driving range per charge, solid-state batteries present a significant breakthrough. Selected projects will establish capabilities or facilities dedicated to translating fundamental solid-state electrolyte research into large format/high-volume manufacturing, enhancing precision processing of large format SSB cells, and developing the capacity to rapidly verify the scalability of breakthroughs in SSBs, fostering innovation.

Flow batteries cater efficiently to the changing grid and onsite electricity requirements, enhancing adaptability for fluctuating renewable power sources. Given the dynamism of the requirements, a key challenge for flow batteries is the gap between potential flow battery use cases and the current state of manufacturing capabilities. Selected projects will develop innovative cell/reactor architectures that are targeted for simplicity, adaptability, and/or scalability for specific use cases and establish manufacturing and process standards, accelerating the adoption of automated manufacturing and decreasing costs.

The selected projects cover two topics:

Topic 1: Innovative Solid-State Battery Manufacturing Capabilities. (3 awards, $11 million total) These projects address significant barriers for domestic, expansive solid-state battery production. The specific focus areas for this topic are:

  • Converting foundational solid-state electrolyte research into expansive/high-volume manufacturing RD&D.

  • Amplifying precision processing and production of solid-state batteries in large-scale cells.

  • Authenticating and corroborating the scalability of solid-state batteries.

Topic 2: Innovative Flow Battery Manufacturing Capabilities (2 awards, $5 million total). These projects are geared towards addressing the technical and manufacturing challenges inherent to US flow battery production. The focus areas for this topic are:

  • Advancing manufacturing for novel or improved cell/reactor designs and configurations.

  • Formulating manufacturing and processing benchmarks.

Topic 1 selected projects:

Lead /
Project Award
Oak Ridge National Laboratory /
Intecells and High-T
ORNL and partners will develop a scalable process to manufacture solid-state batteries with LiNixMnyCo1-x-yO2 (x≥0.6, NMC) cathode and oxide-based electrolytes, which is intrinsically nonflammable. The project will transform the current batch process for fabricating and sintering SSB oxide-based electrolytes to a continuous process. This project will also integrate the cathode, electrolyte and anode into full cells and scale them up from the current button cell (≤10 mAh) to ≥ 1 Ah, ≥350 Wh/kg and 500 cycles. $4M
National Renewable Energy Laboratory/
ORNL, SLAC, Solid Power, SkyNano, Epic Advanced Materials, and Mott Corporation
The team will advance next-generation SSB technology through novel dry process electrode manufacturing. This effort will combine state-of-the-art modelling, advanced characterization, new material formulation, novel high-throughput processing, and a unique three-dimensional cell architecture to demonstrate high energy (>400 Wh/kg), large-area (> 100cm2) all solid-state batteries with commercially relevant, low failure rate manufacturing processes. $4M
Argonne National Laboratory /
ORNL, Ampcera, Arkema, Forge Nano, Ion Storage Systems, Koura Global, NEI Corp., and Soelect
The team will explore SSB manufacturing through a comprehensive examination of both slurry-based and dry processing methods for roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacturing. The primary aim is to optimize solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) for use in safer and higher-capacity batteries. The project seeks to enhance various aspects of SSEs, including ionic conductivity, area-specific resistance, mechanical properties, and stability, while also investigating the integration of innovative R2R techniques into commercial-scale SSB production. The expected outcomes encompass refined manufacturing methodologies, a comprehensive understanding of slurry-based and dry processes, and practical guidelines for implementing R2R processes in SSB production. $3M

Topic 2 selected projects:

Lead /
Project Award
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory /
ESS, Otoro Energy and Chemours
The team will develop standardized redox flow battery (RFB) electrolytes and stacks. The goal of the project is to reduce the cost of manufacturing redox flow battery components and systems by implementing standardized designs and processes. $2.9M
Kraton, Stryten Energy, Perma Pure, Georgia Tech
The team will develop a novel RFB architecture, specifically the co-axial bundled microtubular RFB. The 3-year goals of this project are to: i) develop a prototype based on the new RFB architecture that can deliver >10 kWh power, and ii) standardize material processing and cell fabrication protocol for this innovative RFB architecture. $2.1M



Toyota reckon they have cracked durability issues for their solid state and are ready to release them in a BEV as early as 2027.

That is considerable progress, as initially they thought that they would release them in hybrids to start with, presumably with the smaller battery holding costs down:

The link includes their battery roadmap, with non solid state batteries including cheaper LiFePo and long range variants, all benchmarked against their current BZ4X

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