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Toyota’s advanced battery technology roadmap

At the recent launch of its BEV Factory Toyota Motor revealed that its next-generation BEVs (battery electric vehicles) will start production in 2026. Not only will they be designed and built differently, they will also be powered by a range of new advanced batteries developed specifically to exceed Toyota customers’ diverse needs and expectations.

During a recent technical workshop under the theme of “Let’s Change the Future of Cars”, Toyota communicated a first insight into its next-generation BEV breakthrough technologies, including a preview of its advanced battery technology rollout plan.

Takero Kato, president of Toyota’s BEV Factory, indicated that the next-generation BEVs will first hit the market in 2026 and that 1.7 million of the 3.5 million BEVs Toyota expects to sell by 2030 will be these next-generation models. He also highlighted that a range of battery technologies will be key to appealing BEVs to a wider range of customers and their needs.

Toyota has unveiled four next-generation batteries including advances with both liquid and solid electrolytes, and gave a preview of two further steps with solid electrolyte battery technology.

Improved performance from liquid electrolyte batteries. Batteries with liquid electrolytes, which are currently the mainstream technology for BEVs, are being further developed by Toyota to deliver improved energy density, cost competitiveness and charging speeds.

There are three main technologies under development for liquid electrolyte batteries: Performance, Popularized and High Performance.

1. Performance [Lithium-ion]. Intended to be introduced with the next-generation BEVs to be introduced in 2026, the Performance Li-ion battery will increase the cruising range of BEVs to more than 800 km (497 miles) when combined with improved aerodynamics and reduced vehicle weight.

  • 20% reduction in cost (compared to current bZ4X BEV)

  • Rapid recharging time of 20 minutes or less (SOC = 10-80%)

  • Timing: expected 2026

2. Popularization [Lithium Iron Phosphate]. Toyota is developing high-quality, lower-cost batteries to support the wider appeal of BEVs by providing customers with a variety of battery options—similar to the choice they have today with different powertrains.

The Popularization battery is constructed using the bipolar technology that Toyota pioneered and confirmed with its NiMh hybrid electric vehicle batteries, combined with inexpensive lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO) as the core material.

The Popularization battery is expected to offer:

  • 20% increase in cruising range (compared to current bZ4X)

  • 40% reduction in cost (compared to current bZ4X)

  • Fast recharging time of 30 minutes or less (SOC= 10-80%)

  • Timing: expected 2026-27


Monopolar vs. Bipolar structure

3. High-Performance [Lithium-Ion]. Toyota is also developing a High-Performance battery that combines the bipolar structure with Li-Ion chemistry and a high nickel cathode to achieve further advances and further increase cruising range capability to more than 1000 km (621 miles) when combined with improved aerodynamics and reduced vehicle weight.

The High-Performance battery is also expected to offer:

  • Further 10% reduction in cost compared to the Performance battery

  • Rapid charging time of 20 minutes or less (SOC = 10-80%)

  • Timing: expected 2027-28

Breakthrough with Solid-State Batteries [Lithium-Ion]. Long seen as a potential game-changer for BEVs, Toyota has made a technological breakthrough in its quest to improve the durability of Li-Ion solid-state batteries.

Toyota solid-state batteries have a solid electrolyte, allowing for faster movement of ions and a greater tolerance of high voltages and temperatures. These qualities make solid-state batteries suitable for rapid charging & discharging and delivering more power in a smaller form.

The trade-off, until now, has been an expected shorter battery life. However, recent technological advancements by Toyota have overcome this challenge and the company has switched its focus to putting solid-state batteries into mass production.

The aim is to be ready for commercial use by 2027-28.

While solid-state was initially slated for introduction on HEVs, Toyota’s focus is now primarily on next-generation BEVs.

Toyota’s first solid-state battery is expected to offer:

  • 20% increase in cruising range vs. the Performance battery (approx. 1000 km)

  • Fast charge time of 10 minutes or less (SOC = 10-80%)

Further Solid-State Development Activity.

Toyota already has a higher specification Li-Ion solid-state battery under development which is targeting a 50% improvement in cruising range compared to the Performance battery.


Toyota’s battery technology roadmap

Optimizing Battery Height to Improve Range. Aerodynamics play a key role in determining the range of all vehicles. Naturally, in the quest to maximize the range of BEVs there is an increasing focus on reducing or optimizing Cd (drag coefficient) ratings.

Toyota’s consideration goes one step beyond by focusing on CdA (Cd multiplied by A, frontal area) which, because of the multiplication effect of frontal area, has a much bigger bearing on a vehicle’s range capability.

Central to Toyota’s thinking is the height of the battery, which is typically packaged under the vehicle’s floor. This can lead to an overall increase in vehicle height, which then has a disproportionate multiplied effect on CdA and consequently on vehicle range performance.

If the height of the battery can be reduced then it follows that the overall height of the vehicle can be reduced, CdA can be improved and overall range can be increased.

Therefore, Toyota is also developing ever-flatter battery technology.

Today the battery pack of the bZ4X, including casing, is around 150mm high. In the future, Toyota plans to reduce the battery height to 120mm, and even 100mm in the case of high-performance sports vehicles where a low hip-position is also desirable.

These battery height advancements can have positive impacts on range, driving engagement and packaging depending on how they are deployed in the vehicle.



Good to see Toyota finally come around on BEVs, but they will also need to make a massive investment in charging infrastructure. Critically, they must focus on charger reliability, which is badly needed aside from Tesla’s super chargers and fortunately, Toyota’s strong suit.

If they do, they could salvage their 20 year lag behind the industry leader.


Some are skeptical about Toyota and their move to BEV and Solid State batteries.
This time there does appear to be real substance in the Toyota plans and this should appear soon. And yes to make this work a Charging Infrastructure like Tesla’s is needed, using the North American Charging Standard (NACS), or SAE J3400, adopted by the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association.

First, the Solid State Battery Breakthrough:
This looks like this is really coming from Panasonic to be implemented by Prime Planet Energy & Solutions, Inc (the Toyota and Panasonic JV). The breakthrough comes from research in the Oxide Electrolyte which has extremely high ionic conductivities and low cost.
(Reference: “New Oxyhalide Solid Electrolytes with High Lithium Ionic Conductivity >10 mS cm-1 for All-Solid-State Batteries”, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36747340/)

The other BEV plans also look good. Using LFP in the Popularization version, like the BZ4X in China, and low Cd Aerodynamics, with Giga Casting manufacturing to make a low cost, long range vehicle.



What in the world are you on about now?


' Toyota Industries already produced lithium-ion batteries for its forklifts.
December 20, 2017 06:17 JST

NAGOYA -- Toyota Industries plans to enter the business of batteries for electric vehicles, helping group anchor Toyota Motor keep pace with changing times and possibly putting its founder's long-deferred dream of compact, high-capacity batteries within reach.

A renewed focus

With better batteries key to weaning autos off fossil fuels, the Toyota group will bring together all its expertise to develop next-generation batteries.

Toyota Industries got into full swing with batteries a decade ago and rolled out lithium-ion batteries for forklifts in 2016. It now makes the batteries at a plant in Kyowa, Aichi Prefecture. With a development staff of about 300, the company is considering developing such advanced technologies as solid-state batteries that could significantly extend driving range compared with today's batteries.

The Toyota unit is also cultivating technologies for efficient production by coordinating everything from materials to battery pack development to make compact, low-cost batteries a reality. It has filed more than 2,000 patent applications for battery-related technologies.

Taking shape

The Toyota group's history with batteries dates back to Sakichi Toyoda, who invented power looms and founded Toyota Industries, which later led the creation of the Toyota group. No one claimed the prize he offered for the invention of a compact, high-capacity storage battery.

Decades later, such batteries are needed in what some call a once-in-a-century upheaval of the auto-industry landscape.'

Toyota has been seminally involved in the application of batteries to the automobile industry since its inception, and has poured billions into to, being involved in just about every advance.

They are also however committed to mobility for everyone, not producing vehicles which are out of reach and continually sucking billions in subsidies from the less well off to benefit the elite in their luxo-barges.

'When' Toyota moves into BEVs is and always has been determined by the availability of truly affodable, practical and long lasting batteries.

There was never an 'If' about it.


Hi Gryf.

I am particularly pleased that they reckon they have made enough progress to go straight to putting them in BEVs, at one time they thought, presumably largely on cost grounds, that they would be introducing them into hybrids, where the smaller battery packs are less cost critical per KWh.

It will be interesting to see how their choices pan out against the other exciting developments from China, including MLFP for low cost and CATL's sodium batteries.

I would have thought Toyota's solid state just has to be the battery of choice for their associate company Joby's electric VTOL


By the time Toyoto brings its solid battery to market, chinese companies would be far ahead in 2026 with low cost, ultra long range safe sodium battery. 2026 to too far ahead to stop pollution!


Your comment :“the smaller battery packs are less cost critical per KWh” is not accurate. The batteries made by Prime Planet Energy & Solutions for the RAV4, Prius Prime, and the BZ4X are all Prismatic. The older Lexus UX 300e 54.3 kWh battery used the same PHEV2 battery that is in the RAV4. The Lexus UX 300e had 288 cells, the RAV4 had 96 cells (18.1 kWh). The new 2023 BZ4X (Panasonic, i.e. Prime Planet) has a 71.4 kWh battery with 96 NCM cells . The 2023 BZ4X with the CATL battery has 96 LFP cells 72.8 kWh (so cheaper per kWh).

Toyota does look like they could use Manganese in their LFP batteries based on this quote:
“ The addition of manganese, a staple ingredient in rival nickel cobalt manganese (NCM) battery cells, has enabled lithium iron phosphate cells to hold more energy than previously, providing EVs with more range — up to 450 miles (724 km) on a single charge, Toyota said recently.”


Hi Gryf.

I expressed myself poorly.

I meant by my comment on hybrid battery costs being less critical per KWh that they have far smaller packs, of the order of 1KWh for a hybrid, and 15KWh or so for a plug in, as against 50KWh plus for a BEV.

So if the battery is expensive per KWh, that might be tolerable to some extent in a hybrid, to get production going, with high cycle life and high power as against energy priorities.

But anyway, it looks as though Toyota can go straight to BEVs with solid state, which to my mind is likely to indicate that they are hopeful on their costs.

Good to hear that Toyota have not forgotten manganese, as as I commented previously, for cars I reckon that LMFP is 'good enough' although for sure a lighter weight per KWh solution would be still better.

Any thoughts you would share about solid state in aeroplanes, and in particular Joby?


Thoughts on Solid State Batteries for Aviation and in particular Joby.
First, discussing Joby Aviation. Found this article:
“WHAT JOBY AVIATION LEARNED FROM TESLA - BATTERIES, CHARGING, COOLING” https://www.osinto.com/post/what-joby-aviation-learned-from-telsa-batteries-charging-cooling
The main takeaway here is that Joby makes their own batteries and uses commercial battery cells. The article mentions Panasonic and SK On as potential cell suppliers and both are leaders in Solid State electrolyte research.
Previously, I referenced the Panasonic Solid State electrolyte research. A recent article in Nikkei Asia, https://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Technology/Panasonic-to-produce-solid-state-battery-for-drones-by-2029, outlines that Panasonic will develop Solid State batteries for Aviation that will charge fast and can “withstand tens of thousands of charging cycles”. Exactly what Joby needs. (This is probably separate from the Prime Planet Energy & Solutions, Inc JV with Toyota.)
SK On is another candidate and has recently developed a new oxide-based solid electrolyte with lithium-ion conductivity improved by 70 per cent.
These batteries will probably use NCM811 cathodes, however to make the battery reach energy densities greater than 400Wh/kg they need to use the technology from the NASA Sabers research which uses Holley Graphene Sulfur Cathodes, plus NASA is looking for Commercial partners.
Final point, this CleanTechnica article talks about Panasonic Solid State, and in addition, points to ORNL research that shows there is a cost effective solution for Solid State battery production in the journal ACS Energy Letters under the title, “The Role of Isostatic Pressing in Large-Scale Production of Solid-State Batteries.” https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsenergylett.2c01936#
Quoted in the CleanTechnica article
“With the help of an industry partner that produces this pressing equipment, ORNL researchers found that isostatic pressing could make battery production easier and faster while creating better conditions for energy flow,” the lab reported. In the ACS Energy Letters article, one of the contributors works for Quintus Technologies that makes isostatic pressing equipment and also is a supplier to Ford Motors. Note: SK On supplies batteries to Ford Motors.


The CleanTechnica Article reference:
NASA research uses “Holey Graphene Sulfur Cathodes”.


Toyota's big problem is that their 2028 plans will barely make them competitive with today's tech. Other manufacturers will not stand still and wait for them to catch-up.

The 800 km claim is a MacGuffin. Anybody can make an 800 km car by stuffing it with batteries. Mercedes and Tesla already do. Only trouble is... nobody needs 800 km of range. It makes cars heavier, less practical (because batteries use-up space), and more expensive. There is no use case for a passenger car driving 800 km without stopping for at least 20 minutes. In many countries it's illegal to employ someone to do this, for good reason.

Other than that, what are they promising? 20 minute 20-80% charging? That's now common. New battery tech? Regular readers know that this happens all the time. Lower costs? Same.

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