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Study finds no excessive EV battery degradation with V2X

Researchers in Germany have presented a systematic approach to quantify EV battery degradation across various charging strategies. They conducted battery aging experiments under designed conditions reflecting the characteristics of real-world driving and V2X applications, including Vehicle-to-Home (V2H) and Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) applications.

They also carried out a comprehensive parameter study to explore the intricate relationships between V2X applications and battery degradation. A paper on their work is published in eTransportation.


Gong et al.

The Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) concept enables vehicles to connect with various entities, including other vehicles, pedestrians, infrastructure elements, and the electric grid. Within the context of this paper, V2X pertains specifically to concepts and technologies that unlock the potential of EVs by enabling bidirectional energy exchange between EVs and the power grid. Beyond the reduction in energy costs for EV owners, the implications of V2X extend to substantial benefits for grid infrastructure. These include more efficient management of electrical resources, increased use of renewable energy sources, and the potential to alleviate costs for future grid infrastructure expansion.

In accordance with the targeted beneficiaries, V2X can be categorized into three domains: Vehicle-to-Home (V2H), which uses EV batteries as mobile energy storage to supply household power; Vehicle-to-Building (V2B), involving EVs in building energy systems for load balancing, peak demand reduction, incorporation of renewable energy sources, and the optimization of energy utilization patterns; Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G), where EVs supply energy to the grid and engage in ancillary services, and arbitrage in energy markets.

V2X exhibits the potential to prolong the lifespan of an EV battery compared to conventional unidirectional charging methods by allowing controlled charging and discharging. Battery aging is influenced by a variety of factors, including battery chemistry, charge and discharge rates, state-of-charge (SOC), cell temperature, depth-of-discharge (DOD), the number of charge–discharge cycles. Additionally, based on recent findings, the current mode is also recognized to be critical for battery aging. Different dynamic loadings, constant current, multi-state current, and pulse current are influencing factors in cyclic battery aging.

… While existing studies offer insights into either battery aging or revenue potential in V2X applications, they lack specific calibration for V2X-based EV operations and often rely on limited scenarios. This paper is motivated by the need for a specific approach that simulates different V2X charging strategies and accurately assesses their impact on battery health. Therefore, a comprehensive method is presented, which is aimed at realistically simulating V2X applications and understanding the effects of both unidirectional and bidirectional V2X charging strategies on EV battery degradation.

—Gong et al.

The experimental results showed that the aging spread between all V2X and reference scenarios of 3.09% SOH after 20 months is lower than the spread caused by cell-to-cell manufacturing variation under identical conditions reported in the literature.

The results of the parameter study reveal that adopting V2X applications, in addition to primary mobility prospects, does not significantly increase battery degradation and can even reduce capacity loss compared to the conventional uncontrolled charging strategy if properly configured.


  • Jingyu Gong, David Wasylowski, Jan Figgener, Stephan Bihn, Fabian Rücker, Florian Ringbeck, Dirk Uwe Sauer (2024) “Quantifying the impact of V2X operation on electric vehicle battery degradation: An experimental evaluation,” eTransportation doi: 10.1016/j.etran.2024.100316



I have some comments on this.
a: You don't really want other people adding cycles to your expensive car battery.
b: However, a modern car battery may have 60 kWh energy storage, which is 3-5 days electricity use, and you probably won't take the full day's power from the car.
c: If you are taking (say) 1/2 the day's energy, this might be 8kWh, per day which would have little effect on a 60 kWh battery (as it is 12.5% the capacity).
So they may be right - it may not have a big impact.
However, the main thing is probably to use a smart charger (whatever that ends up being) to charge carefully (assuming you are doing this at home).


In the V2X scenarios something that is not discussed is whether the discount provided for making your car available is enough to off set wear and tear (like shorter service life) cost?

If your utility company provides you cheaper rates on your electricity overall in exchange for using you car's battery to load balance the grid, then maybe I could get on board with this. Possibly even some rebates to pay for the hardware and connection cost.

Personally I would probably on do this on a V2H basis - that is only use the car to back up or load balance my home, but not the grid as a whole. Lets me personally have solar day time and battery at night. But could also allow me to use car to run house during peaks then charge back up off peak.

Either way it says something about how much energy mobility takes that we can run you entire home several days on a battery that you might have to charge couple times a day during road trips or delivery/mobility jobs. But also that with that in mind on a daily average you would only use a small portion of capacity and therefore not affect overall life time use of the battery



Real world numbers for most (geographically speaking) of California; peak rate 50c per kWH, mid peak 38c perkWh, and 18c off peak per kWH.

Your Chevy Bolt has a 66kWh battery. If it is good for only 2k cycles to 80% original capacity, costs $12,000 to replace, and salvage value of the old battery covers installation costs of the replacement battery then you’re looking at a cost of about 12c per kWH. It would be able to profit by 20c per kWh just charging off hours and selling during peak hours. If you have solar you can in essence sell some of your surplus at 38c per kWh.


Residential electrical utility providers act as a gatekeeper to real time grid prices so they don't really incentive aligning demand with inflexible renewable generation. This is fundamentally wrong and slows carbon emissions reductions. It's like corporate welfare and needs to end.
Make it easy to charge EVs at the right time.


@Gasbag, are those buy prices for electricity or sell prices?
(Or are they the same in California ?)
seem high for sell prices, imo.


If we get enough vehicle to grid, garages become a grid buffer, we don't need any peaker plants and the grid remain stable in the summer with all the air conditioners.


GdB, not all renewables are inflexible. Hydro can be very flexible, it's a battery that can be used when the Sun isn't shining and the wind isn't blowing. Hydro Quebec uses their dams in this fashion; they buy wind and solar on the spot market when it's cheap, and refill their reservoirs.



Currently buy and sell rates are the same for residential customers.



geothermal (6% for PG&E) though inflexible is well suited to base load. Large scale hydro for whatever reason is not included in the renewables portfolio. Small scale hydro is. In California the fastest growing source according to EIA is batteries. I know batteries aren’t really a source of generation but it allows EIA to not give credit to wind and solar in their accounting.

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